HIS241H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Joseph Bonaparte, Carbonari, Tyrant

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Published on 24 Oct 2013
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS241H1
Lecture 6 -
Revolutions of the 1820s
Wednesday, October 16, 2013
8:48 PM
Revolutions of the 1820s
Congress of Vienna, 1815: objectives: restore the balance of power, ensure political stability in Europe
and to contain France forever. For the British, containment of France was the primary purpose. Austrian
main objective was similar, yet they also wanted to safeguard against Russia. Metternich had a larger
scale of the Balance of Power in mind: Hapsburg Empire, France and Russia. Alexander's ambitions were
a concern for Austria. Russians wanted to increase their prestige and influence in Europe. Objectives, as
different as they are, were achieved. Results: Quadruple Alliance, Holy Alliance, Balance of Power.
Conservatism was used as an ideology. Legitimacy of governance was re-established by monarchies.
However, the congress failed to address two major issues:
1) Liberalism; and
2) Nationalism.
(Romanticism was a stream of thought that affected art, literature and minds as manifestation of those
two undefeated ideas that were suppressed by the restoration of conservatism and monarchy).
Once these two ideas were out, they spread like fire. It took no more than 5 years for both liberalism
and nationalism to resurface and challenge the entire newly re-established order. Social equilibrium was
not achieved by the Congress of Vienna.
3 main revolutionary waves overflew Europe in the 1920s.
The periphery of Europe was mostly affected by the waves: Spain, Russia, Italy. Ideas were deeply
rooted after they were out. The revolutions identify weak spots in the new system.
The Spanish Revolution
It originated from the French experience. Spain was occupied by France in 1808, Joseph Bonaparte was
put on the throne. This created resentment of Napoleon and the imposed regime, but at the same time
brought the new liberal ideas to the country. Now the Spanish wanted liberalism, participation in the
political life of the state. Spain accepted a liberal constitution and idea of limit to future monarchy. The
monarch in exile, Ferdinand VII, accepted it.
Yet, when Ferdinand VII (1814) was brought back by the Congress of Vienna, the first thing he did is
denounce the liberal Constitution of 1812, discarding his promises. He re-established absolutist
monarchy, the Church was brought back. He confiscated the lands bourgeoisie purchased after they
were taken from the Church.
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Document Summary

Congress of vienna, 1815: objectives: restore the balance of power, ensure political stability in europe and to contain france forever. For the british, containment of france was the primary purpose. Austrian main objective was similar, yet they also wanted to safeguard against russia. Metternich had a larger scale of the balance of power in mind: hapsburg empire, france and russia. Russians wanted to increase their prestige and influence in europe. Objectives, as different as they are, were achieved. Results: quadruple alliance, holy alliance, balance of power. Once these two ideas were out, they spread like fire. It took no more than 5 years for both liberalism and nationalism to resurface and challenge the entire newly re-established order. Social equilibrium was not achieved by the congress of vienna. 3 main revolutionary waves overflew europe in the 1920s. The periphery of europe was mostly affected by the waves: spain, russia, italy. Ideas were deeply rooted after they were out.

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