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Lecture

the french revolution


Department
History
Course Code
HIS241H1
Professor
Anthony Cantor

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L ecture 1 - The French revolution.
There were many changes in the land map, they viewed some citizens as active(men) and some passive(woman) through this they
decided to enslave black citizens in French colonies.
There were many things that became unimaginable, that whatever came before could never return.
The French revolution was not a singular event but a larges motion of change, led to the Haitian and American revolution.
What did the French revolution end?
-ended the old regime. The old system of social and political order and privileges. The institutions which wounded liberties.
-nobility no feudal regime, rank by birth.
-it was an attack on privilege (tax exemption, offices, land)
-ended trade guilds, (unions)
-Catholic Church, which they saw as a corporate union. The relationship between the church and the state changes forever.
DYNASTIC DIPLOMACY—it’s not the treaties of princess which govern nations. (Spain and France both Bourbon)
-no more professional armies, no loyal soldiers to the king, because the armed people of the French revolution an active citizen to be
involved.
The French revolution changed forever the aristocracy and the Monarchy’s of Europe. When Nepol. Restored the monarchy, it is a lot
weaker and does not have the same power. The nature of monarchy was forever transformed. The congress of Vienna tried to restore
the legitimate rulers however the throne of Louis XVIII was more Nepol then Louis XVI
WHAT DID THE REVOLUTION START?
The national tradition. nations (not kings) were the supreme sources of authority in human affairs. Passive subject loyal to a
dynasty to an active citizen of a nation
EARLY DAYS OF THE REVOLUTION (went from king of France to king of the French)
The liberal tradition institutions of the state should be rearranges for the good of the citizens.
LATER DAYS OF THE REVOLUTION universal interest of the French people calling the king to serve them.
The popular tradition every French men was an active citizen, brought parliamentary life to the general public. Violent
demonstration and riots (the Paris mob) secret societies.
The bureaucratic tradition modern civil service, Merit.
Lecture 2 -Napoleon
Napoleon as a singular figure
Napoleon was responsible for many of the changes in Europe not because of the civil code and the society he established but also
because of the land changes which he forced. (social legal and geographical)
He first came to power 1799
there were many descriptions of napoleon: napoleons rule although may seem as quick and ambitious. Everything he did was in fact
thought out and planned out carefully.
he believed to be liberating the people, he was then really loved by romantics and was thought as a hero because of the emotions he
brought to power.
“every operation must be done according to a system because chance cannot bring about success” –Napoleon
he never signed up for a religion however believed his life was ruled by a rational and an irrational. (the split -enlightenment or
romantic- debates his relationship between him and the revolution.)
This depends on what we consider the French revolution (do we consider the reign of terror too)
Son:
the achievements of the revolution were cut short by the radical revolution and napoleon tried to continue equality, liberty and civil
code.
Denied:
the character of this political institutions
tight control of belief
how he dealt with opposition
sure some of his reforms were in line with thought of the early revolution however the form of his revolution were like those of the terror.
When Napoleon came to power he offered peace to Austria and Britain - they rejected it – and later napoleon got many military victories and
treaties.
THE TREATY OF AMIENS (1802)
-France and Great Britain
-evacuate certain territories and declare some independent.

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*treaty did not cover what happens to many of the territories such as the left side of the Rhine and Holland which were then left in French
control. This allowed them to reshape the German states as they felt
*it did not guarantee independence to Italian republics, which was then left to France as satellite states.
IMPERIAL RECESS OF 1803
Reconstruction of Germany (1803)-112 neighbouring city states were dissolved and incorporated into others left o about six: Frankfurt,
Augsburg, Nuremberg, Lubeck, Hamburg, Bremen.
main beneficiaries of this were Prussia and Bavaria Baden and Wurttemberg
(led to the strengthening of Prussia which leads to German unification)
After this the German states looked for France not Prussia or Austria for rule.
Napoleon does things to piss off the British because he always believe d the treaty of am amines was only temporary
War broke out (third coalition)
Invade Germany past the Rhine river and created the confederation of the rhine
Confederation of the Rhine (1806)
-created by Napoleon
-Union of 15 German States
-Napoleon as protector
-Includes every German state except Prussia and Austria. (formal end to the Holy Roman Empire)
After this napoleon is president of many “independent” states. And clearly starts to speak of a global empire.
(dependent” satellite states, annexed during the French revolution. And dependent countries militarly or economically)
Lecture 3 –Napoleon
The French Revolution and Napoleon -A world historical phenomena (Heiti)
-the cost of the French revolution- overthrow of the monarchy and slavery.
THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE
-There were many
Lecture 4 – The Industrial Revolution
Did the French revolution or the industrial revolution have a greater effect on the people. They worked together to create the changes.
The Process
There was no direct moment of change (as we think of a revolution)
Not everything changes however things that already existed intensified. (factories developed from artisanal production)
Change of setting (women working at home began to work in factories)
Causes:
The agricultural revolution, an abundance of natural resources, water,
Started in England.
Tactical advantage
Les a faire policy’s
Success in wars
Rivals believed- England smaller area however larger population and trade. The trade made them rich, every leader has cared about and cared
for it as a first priority.
Mercantilism (mercantile System):
A theory prevalent in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries asserting that the wealth of nations depends on its possession of
precious metals and therefore that the government of a nation must maximize its foreign trade surplus, and foster national commercial
interests, a merchant marine, the establishment of colonies, etc.
Maximize wealth by keeping most of the precious metals by maximizing taxes
Adam smith was against this
The English work better and harder therefore can withstand competition despite the expense of their labour.
The critique
It did not happen in a bubble, there were many inventors working together, from different countries.
The problem of French property rights were too defined.
The British was very dedicated to their navy and military.
Lecture #5 -The Industrial Revolution ( Economic .)
Microeconomics- The part of economics concerned with single factors and the effects if individual traditions
(ex. the iron industry or income)
Macroeconomics- The part of economics concerned with large-scale or general economic factors, such as interest rates and national
productivity.
Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)
-objected to the idea of history as limitless societal improvement.
-“The power if population is indefinitely greater then the power of the earth to produce subsistence for men”

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Iron law of population: that the population grows much faster than our ability to produce food.
Always an ongoing cycle more food leads to a growth in population more people less food.
This means of overpopulation is controlled my natural misery and starvation.
-this all would have been true, until the industrial revolution and changes in agricultural production
-living standards produces changes on social standards (number of children …)
3 Implications of new research
- the industrial revolution was an increase of the already existing sectors of economy. (changes in the interpretation of the old data, trade data,
industrialisation cannot be based in the inventions)
- Britain’s path of industrialization was different of that on the Continent.
- there is now a large debate
Primary sector of the economy: extraction of raw materials for use in other industries. Not just agriculture. (There are three sectors of
employment – agriculture, industry, the primary sector.)
**Britain’s level of income was slower than other countries however the shift of workers from agriculture to industry was a lot faster. **
It’s not that farms could produce more food, but the labour to and ratio increased.
Population, and Standard of Living:
There was a reciprocal relationship between population growth and population growth in 18th century England.
There was many debates about which came first
Living standards- means population was not being controlled by the food supply( did not fall into the Malthusian trap)
-not a decline in mortality but a rise in birth’s
What does this have to do with industrialisation?
-we should not overestimate the importance of technology however, technological change is crucial to the escape of the Malthusian trap
Lecture #7 - Social Industrialization
Social Changes and Industrialization in Britain:
Work and leisure
Changes in women’s work
Some legislation was passed to protect children and works (hours, conditions)
Factory Movement-helped pass the factory act of 1844
Factory act of 1844- fence off the machinery and 12 hour work days for women and children
1842 passed the mines act –forbade woman and children under 10 to work underground,
***the lack of legislature to protect workers was because of the leas-er-fair beliefs and was done because the middle class felt a moral
responsibility to help the lower class.
In the late 18th century the skilled workers found themselves in common union with unskilled workers of the factories.
(1834) created a union which one year later collapsed.
Leisure-
under industrialization you have a regulated working week where before people had a lot of extra time between
harvests.
The middle class and educated class influences the working class leisure time, because they wanted them to adopt
more respectable activities.
Living and health standards
Religion and society
Popular education
Old and new laws, Popular protest, Crime justice and punishment.
Proletariat: the industrial working class, refers to unskilled labour. Someone dependent on their own labour. Marx turns it to the industrial
working class
Seeing themselves as a class part is much more important to class consciousness. Social consequences of the social development.
1. FR abolished guilds. (groups of skilled craftsmen who controlled standards) laws against unions and strikes. Crisis of expansion-
anyone who could now do the skill.
Bourgeoisie: the capitalist class who own most of society’s wealth and means of populationMarxist definition (Industrial middle class)
***no one had a stronger class identity then the middle class***
There were actually several middle class however they united because they wanted political power and wealth. In search of an ISM
(looking for an ideology)
They began to dress different, had different values and beliefs.
Lecture #8-Industrialization of Europe
Why did the industrialization start in Europe and not other parts of the world?
Western Europe in the medieval times was not as advanced as the Islamic world (scientific developments, philosophy and trade)
Many philosophers’s described Asian history as a number of despots and no protection of investment.
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