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Lecture

World War 1 (Lect2) Background to war, July Crisis, Assasination of Franz Ferdinand, Schlieffen Plan


Department
History
Course Code
HIS242H1
Professor
Jennifer Jenkins

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WW1- 1914-1918. Diplomacy, Warfare, Violence and politics
- Europe had been urbanized and industrialized since 1890. It had also
been free of war from 1870-1914 (excluding colonial wars, wars on
fringe of Europe)
- 1914- Europe is at the peak of its power. Possesses ¼ world pop
- Empires of Europe produce colonial rivalries and reckless foreign
policies
- Seeds for war seen before; Morocco 1905, Boer War 1900, Balkan War
- War sparked by the July Crisis- 5 weeks (June 28- July 31)
- Diplomatic crisis begins with the assassination of Archduke Franz
Ferdinand (heir to Habsburg empire) and ends with Russian
mobilization and declarations of war
- War proved to be a war of annihilation. By 1918 Europe is drastically
different, redraws Europe.
- War provides the first taste of mass industrialized death (MGs, aerial
war, gas war). Mass armies
- Civilian deaths were not pronounced but not uncommon (Armenian
Genocide, Germans execute Belgians). Creates a new and terrifying
aspect of war
- War leaves legacies of hatred and creates a new style of warfare
- European civilization is re-examined in 1918, optimism has
disappeared after civilization has unleashed such bloodshed
- 1908- AustHung annexes Bosnia-Herz. F. Ferd travels to Bosnia to
observe military manoeuvres on June 28th (insulting, Serbia crushed by
Ottomans at Kosovo on same date)
- Black Hand- Bosnian Serb terrorist organization. Death oaths taken
upon initiation. Serbia dreams of a Pan Slav Balkans and is
expansionist in nature. Proceeds to aid and fund the Black Hand
- 2 assassination attempts (1st failed bombing, 2nd gunshot)
- Begins a local, Balkan conflict which escalates into war through
alliances
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