Early Modern Europe October 5th
- Class next Thursday is cancelled. (Oct. 14th - tutorial still on)
2) Humanists - Male & Female
Humanists in Society
word humanista designation for people who studied humanism, as well as people who
taught the humanities, and also those who practice the related works.
For example, civil servants/secretaries, lawyers, doctors - people who has to work
directly with Roman examples, had access to manuscripts, higher degree of training and
Humanistic studies began first with lawyers, who had to go back and study Roman
law (to determine how to shape new laws for the new Roman societies) which lead to
other Roman literature (such as poetry) and then finally to things like history and
Wealthy "freelancers"; people who do not have to necccesarily work for a living, and
have money to go around and buy/translate manuscripts.
Humanists never only one just thing, the term does not reflect a single interest and is
not solely job related, it is a hobby/interest/advocation.
Poggio Bracciolini (1380 - 1459)
From Florence, and is a student in an infor mal study group while young, whose
leader is the Chancellor of Florence (Coluccio Salutati) who believed in the
humanities. He gathered some of the br ight young men in Florence and they would
read through classical texts together. This began Bracciolini's love of humanism.
By age 23 he is a secretary (high placed official) in the court of the Pope.
St. Gall was a huge monastic library which he worked through on his days off,
looking for manuscripts. Finds Quintilian's "Book of the Orator".
When Pope's change at this times they generally want a new staff, so when the
Pope changes he is sent into exile and moves to England, then returns to it again
when the Pope changes once more.
Makes Chancellor of Florence himself, and begins to write a histor y of
Also wrote a great deal of Rena issance por n on his days off. Was a
controversial character due to these polarities.
Nicaolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)
one of the people who exemplifies the idea of going back to the past to find
guidance for the future.
Was secretary of war, at a time when Florence is facing serious military
threats. Draws on Roman sources with regards to how to run the army.
At this time standing armies were too expensive, and therefore more cities
would hire mercenaries, which were also expensive and came with complications