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Lecture

England and Great Britain


Department
History
Course Code
HIS244H1
Professor
Nicholas Terpstra

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HIS244 England and Great BritainThursday February 10h 2011
Lecture Outline
The 3 kingdoms
Civil wars
Whig history
Commonwealth to Restoration
Glorious Revolution
After the Glorious Revolution
Significance of the Dutch model:
Imposed one of the harshest slave regimes in the world
They were able to feed their people, highest standard of living in Europe in
the 17th century
Culture, science, etc.
England will learn from the Dutch how to economically survive a war
Englands mid-century crisis was very different
This crisis actually prevented England from becoming too involved nthe crisis that
was affecting other European nations, mainly the 30 Years War
17th century set the stage for England to become one of the largest economic powers
in Europe
The Four Kingdoms
England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland (Poynings Law)
Were going to look at how England becomes Great Britain and the structure of these
different nations
Wales
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HIS244 England and Great BritainThursday February 10h 2011
16th century, Wales is formally annexed to England
Not much importance other than it being the place where the Irish would
invade England
Scotland
Has its own law and its own church (Presbyterian)
The highlands were still Catholic, however
James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England when Elizabeth dies
So, the crowns are joined but the people are not
Ireland
Has its own government and theoretically its own law
Poynings Law, however, makes this law a farce, because any law passed by
Dublin has to be authorized by London
Largely Catholic, but a Protestant elite and movement of Protestants into
Irish
English Government
Crown royal prerogatives (right to call parliament, right to collect royal dues,
control foreign policy, declare war, etc.)
Bicameral parliament House of Lords (titled nobles and high-ranking clergymen)
and House of Commons (elected)
Charles I tries to stretch prerogative powers
Personal rule (1629-40)
He ruled without parliament
Charles I inherited a lot of problems, a lot of it being money and religion
He seems to continuously make the wrong decisions, although he felt he was doing
the right thing
One of the issues was the Church of England Anglicanism
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HIS244 England and Great BritainThursday February 10h 2011
A movement arises in the 16th century known as Puritanism, Elizabeth decides to
persecute them and they largely go to the New World
Charles I believes in Arminianism
Charles tries to impose an English prayer book on the Scots (they dont like this)
When Charles goes to war with the Scots and loses (twice) he has to go to
parliament, because they have the power to raise and levy taxes
Civil Wars
Even with seemingly dire problems, there was no need to go to Civil War, but
Charles seems to make the wrong deicisions at the worst moments
He has problems with money from the wars with Scotland, Ireland starts to
experience civil unrest
Charles has to ask Parliament to raise money to fix things in Ireland, Parliament
takes this time to bring up their grievances
Their most important grievances were taken care of in this stage
However, things were still drifting towards war
1642 drift to war
Royalists and parliamentarians
Long Parliament (1640-1660) raises its own army and starts fighting battles
The royalists start doing really well, but Parliament comes out with the New Model
Army and start to do well
Charles is captured
Charles bargains with the Parliaments but he escapes his captures and tries to
attack them again
The New Model Army radicals were led by Oliver Cromwell
Long Parliament was upset with what has happened
Col. John Pride purges the Long Parliament, causing Rump Parliament
Charles is put on trial and beheaded NO popular support for this
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