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Lecture 14

HIS280Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Liang Qichao, Guangxu Emperor, Shandong

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Paul Thompson

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Lecture 13
end of qing
- a revolution in Ideas
- Radical ideas in 1890s that pushed toward the final revolution of 1912
spark of reforms when Kang Yongwei and Liao zhi chao convinced the Guangxu
emperor to do some reform but was pushed down to Cixi
moves toward nationalism:
- Highbrow moves toward nationalism ->
1898 september -> Kangyouwei and Liang Qichao: they made way to exile in the
- Kangyouwei started to distance himself from confucians background
before 1898 confucians is a reformer himself and his system is for room to reform
and adaptation
after 1898 he distanced himself
moving toward utopian future :” Great Peace, taiping ”: no ethnic division, no
- Liangxi chao was in japan, he took advantage of news as a platform to call people
to develop new nationalism-> nationalistic and ethnic based future, Chinese race
will be associate with Chinese nation and protect from White people and manchu
“ Zhong zhang [ race war]”
advocated to give up traditional culture in order to establish new nationalism
very revolutionary and it is essential to survival to Chinese nation and people
- They are still sympathetic to Guangxu emperor
- Lowbrow moves toward nationalism : The boxers
they were known as the yi he quan [ fist of justice and peace]
refers to rebellion
emergence in northern china of Shangdong: many ports
fiction between merchants and peasants and missionaries and people
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many flood and natrual
1898 - 1899 : movement took roots among group of people [ Guang gun] no money to
get education, no land, no investment, no wife, out of desperation they turned to
in particular region, 7 out of 10 were basically Bare sticks they were poor
Boxer’s theology: spiritual practice, arm themselves in traditional weapon and pratice
in martial art and have pure society idea
- belives in magical beliefs
- hybrid of Daoism and Buddhism -> more magical
- women’s role invovled with spirtual practice and invulnerability practice by
practicing from drinking, sex they can achieve invunlnerability meaning they can
take a bullet and wont get hut
1899, boxers were taking people’s properties and killed Chinese commerce
- movement spread to rest of China
- by June, 1900s there were many boxers in China
- in June, along the way to destroying new tehcn like telegram, Europeans were
killed as well, Chinese people that looks have association of foreign culture were
accused of being foregin object would be killed to
USA declared the Open door Policy -> foreign power were nervous about the
emergence of boxers
- cixi was watching it and declare to support boxer in late june of 1990
- she said: foreigners had been aggressive towards us, the common people were
suffering and the great followers that burning churches and missionaries would
do such a thing
- emergence of anti- foreigners would be a good idea for cixi because she can use it
against it and get rid of foreigners and let them continue
- A governer of Shanxi -> manchu officials called western missionaires to come to his
office to protect them from the boxers but instead he massacred them all
zhang zhi dong: reactionary righ wing -> let us use western as a source at the same
time keep chinese chinese -> he held back in “fire power” they were waiting
on august 4, a large foreign force from 8 different nations invaded and occupied
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