HIS311Y1 Lecture Notes - Dust Bowl, Herbert Meredith Marler, Norman Robertson

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28 Nov 2011
Thursday, November 24, 2011
The Era of Appeasement – Canada in the Dirty Thirties
King and Bennett demonstrated a lack of courage to mobilize against aggression
occurring at the time
Canada supported Appeasement of Britain and France – isolationism – to prevent
Growth of DEA and Canadian representative board
Skelton responsible for the growth of the department
Hume Wrong, Norman Robertson – succeeded Skelton, Lester B. Pearson
In 1909, it was regarded as a post office but by the 1920s, it was changing
Canada established its own representation outside of Britain
o1927 – Vincent Massey – minister to the US – believed he deserved a
foreign posting
o1928 – France – Philippe Roy – relations between Canada and France was
not of significance but it was good politics for French Canadians
oJapan – 1929 – Herbert Marler – done in recognition of Japan’s rising
power and because Canada was a pacific country as well
Tone of foreign policy was isolationism, best seen in participation in League of
Fireproof House of the 1920s
Canada was not an active member of the league
King emphasized good relations with neighbours in Europe like Canada and the
US and his speeches were known as the “Canada Speech”
In 1928, Canada signed the Briand-Kellogs Pact – it was originally between
France and the US and outlawed the use of war in international diplomacy. Many
others signed as well, but it was just paper. There was no power of enforcement.
Canada signed, displaying naïve attitude about keeping the peace
Global Impact of Depression
Began in 1928 and lasted a decade, relived by the advent of WWII
GNP dropped 40%, unemployment reached 20%, 1.4 million government relief
Resulted in contraction of 1/3 in global trade
Countries imposed high tariffs on others to protect domestic economy; this
resulted in an increase in isolationism. Governments were facing bankruptcy due
to the need of social assistance
Undermined structures of democracies – it was so bad that they actually
collapsed, such as the German republic, which made way for the rise of the Nazis
This overshadowed everything in int’l relations – it helped the rise of Hitler and
made it impossible for countries to intervene
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