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Lecture 10

Lecture 10: Immigration and Emigration in the Confederation Era

Course Code
Ian Radforth

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Lecture 10: Immigration and Emigration in the Confederation Era
-nation-bldg and disappointments
-British North America Act, 1867
-Canadas first Immigration Act in 1869
-immigration and nation-bldg
-1860s: 220 000 in vs. 400 000 out
-1870s: 300 000 in vs. 350 000 out
-the appeal of the US
-the Confederation era, the 3 decades after 1867
-Confederation a great hope
-develop Canadian resources, to attract vast numbers, to build a broad-based eco.
-but the immigrant numbers were never as bit as hoped, in fact quiet a
few ppl left
-tried to attract and retain immigrants, but mixed results
-the new Dominion of Canada est. with 1867
-ON, QC, NS, and NB, the 4 provinces
-only 3.5 million ppl, ON the biggest, and had benefited from substantial
-British North America Act, came into effect on July 1, 1867
-also provided a constitution
-gave the powers for the feds and the provinces
-for immigration, weirdly a responsibility for both the provinces
and the feds
-but Ottawa took most of the power, argued that
immigration central to natl development, so
should be a fed responsibility
-but provinces did best to try and control it,
alongside it
-1869, first Immigration Act
-didnt really do a lot
-just to keep out the destitute and the unhealthy
-immigration seen as a priority
-esp. in the Northwest, referred to Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatchewan
-all created at the same time
-also BC created and then joined by the railway
-seen as empty
-though abs. ppl already there, along with fur traders, and the Metis
-in 1871 census, shown that in the 1860s that the great Brit migration slowed down, very few
Irish, just mostly the English, increasingly went to the US, Australia, New Zealand
-1860s: 220 000 in and 400 000 out
-overwhelmingly went to the US
-pattern continued into the 1870s, even with drive to populate the
-1870s: 300 000 in and 350 000 out
-against most went to he US
-in the Maritimes, trad. solidified for young ppl,
esp. the men to go to Boston, the coastal
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