Lecture 9: The Long Postwar: West and East Germany, 1948-1961/68
I. Amnesia and the Economic Miracle: West Germany in the 1950s
1. The Zero Hour?
2. West German Resurrection, the “Raisin Bombers,” and the Basic Law
3. The “Economic Miracle”
4. Christian Democracy and Social Democracy
5. An Inability to Mourn?
6. Early Commemorations
7. Germans as Victims vs. Victims of Germans
II. East Germany, 1949-1961/68
1. What Kind of State?
2. Early Violence
3. "Internal Security": the Stasi and the Berlin Wall (August, 1961)
-May 1969, West Germany, October 1949, East Germany founded
-East Germany barely lasts 40 yrs
-1989, Mikhail Gorbachec says USSR will no longer back E.Germany
-a month later E. Germany falls
-plans for reunification begin
-the "Zero Hour"
-a term given to the end of the war
-the complete surrender of Germany, fall of the Nazi party, and the suicide of
-8th of May, had mixed feelings
-deteriorating relationship between the USSR and US
-by 1947-1948 the wartime alliance comes to an end
-European Recovery Program, which helps W. Euro recover, divides the continent
-plans for a long deNazification of Germany, how it would be rebuilt,
reindustrialized, as the policy shifts under US Prez. Truman, as
the world is divided in two
-and West Germany is at the frontlines
-so W. Ger must be brought back on to it's feet
-Marshall Plan, April 1948
-decision to federate the W. German state
-as by 1947, the Brits, French (1949), and US zones fuse
-1948, landmark legislation in W.G.
-currency reform, reintroduces the German mark (no longer exists, now the Euro)
-to end the extensive black market activities
-Spring 1948, German blockade
-where all of the roads, transport in to W. Berlin is stopped, since W. Berlin is right in the
middle of E.G.
-so the Allies have an airlift, to get supplies in
-now Berlin is the symbolic centre of the Cold War
-Sept. 9, Berlin Councilor Reuter, speech in front of the Reichstag
-August 1961, the Berlin Wall built
-basically a constitution, but not actually called that, cause Germany was divided, and