HIS377H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Monroe Doctrine, Mobutu Sese Seko, Mohammad Mosaddegh

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Published on 8 Sep 2013
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HIS 377 – 20th Century American Foreign Relations
Lecture 7 Week 7
February 28th, 2013
Waging Peace – Eisenhower Confronts the Cold War
oRECAP:
oExpansion (empire)
oPower
oOrder
oUniqueness
oCold War Themes:
oUS-Soviet Tensions
oNuclear World
oRenewed Geopolitics
oRise of the Third World
US cant see the difference between nationalism and communism
US feels the need to steer undeveloped countries towards their path
oLiking Ike: The Eisenhower Administration
oEisenhower is a republican from Kansas
oSupreme Commander Allied Forces Europe during WW2 under Democrats
oWon 1952 election in a landslide
oRe-elected in 1956
oThe republicans still had an isolationist flair, but that was irrelevant as the US
had to step up to the plate now
oEisenhower was the perfect person to shape post war America as he had
fought the wars
oNixon was his Vice President
oJohn Foster Dulles was his Secretary of State
“Bull that carries around his own china shop”
oEisenhower purposely chose these two as they were loud and controversial
oFrom National Security State to “New Look”
oTruman:
National Security Act, 1947
NATO, 1949
Truman Doctrine, 1950
NSC-68, 1950
There is a fear that the proposed changes in NSC-68 could
bankrupt the country – they were far too large
They put nuclear weapons on par with conventional weapons
oEisenhower and the “New Look” (NSC 162/2)
The new look sought to reduce conventional forces and to build up a
massive nuclear arsenal
Three Components of the New Look:
Massive Retaliation and MAD
Eisenhower had concluded that it would be cheaper to build up
the nuclear arsenal than it would be to build up the
conventional army
oThey had to convince the Soviet Union that they would
use their nuclear arsenal
System of Alliances
oNATO
oSEATO
oBaghdad Pact in response to Nassir
Covert Action
oCheap, no invasion, no declaration, plausible
deniability, no congress, etc
oConfronting Nationalism:
oThe “Spirit of Bandung”
April 18-24, 1955
29 countries + observers
10 point Declaration
Led to creation of the Non-Alignment Movement, Belgrade, 1961
US were invited and they declined
US declines as they support independence, but most of their allies have
colonial interests and they have their own domestic racial problems to
contend with
The US was also very racist at this time and labelled many of the third
world countries seeking independence as communist
oThe CIA and Covert Action: Iran, Guatemala and Congo
Iran:
Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC)
Mohammed Mossadeq wants to nationalize the AIOC
Mossadeq is eventually replaced and a pro-western individual
is placed in power
Op TX/AJAX
Baghdad Pact (1955)
The lesson of the Iranian Covert Operation was that covert
worked and that it was cheap due to the relative success they
had in Iran
Guatemala:
US has no problems getting involved in South America – falls
under the Monroe Doctrine
The United Fruit Company pretty much ran Guatemala and
they dominated the country – built roads, infrastructure and
even ran the postal service – largest employer in the country
and had Alan Dulles as a board of director – John Foster Dulles
law firm represents the company
Jacobo Arbenz Guzman nationalizes the land and pays the
company based on what their tax returns had stated – UFC had
been lying and wanted 17 million instead of the 600k
They label Arbenz as a communist because he redistributed
land
Alan Dulles called him a communist beachhead in the Western
hemisphere
They initiate operation PBSUCCESS – they train Nicaragua
men and invade Guatemala – Arbenz is forced to step down or
fear death
Castillo Armas comes to power
Covert action seems like a valid option for change again except
there was blowback from PBSUCCESS
Nixon goes on a goodwill tour to Latin America and he was
attacked while touring Venezuela – he goes back to
Washington and the Americans learn that there was some idea
that they were involved
Congo:
The Congo Crisis takes place in 1961
Congo gains independence from Belgium in 1959
Patrice Lumumba comes to power but he immediately
antagonizes the west denouncing colonialism, imperialism and
white rule
He gives everyone in the government raises, but doesn’t give
the army raises
The Americans declare Lumumba is an African Castro and
Communist
Eisenhower made an order to have Lumumba assassinated, but
his chosen man turned it down
The Belgians and Katanga’s likely did it – Belgium still had an
interest in resources and stopping the ideologies of Lumumba
from spreading
Mobutu Sese Seko comes into power and rules with an iron fist
Another example of successful covert action and the US
believes covert action can bring about beneficial regime
change
oConfronting China in Taiwan
Taiwan Straits Crisis

Document Summary

His 377 20th century american foreign relations. Waging peace eisenhower confronts the cold war: recap, expansion (empire, power, order, uniqueness, cold war themes, us-soviet tensions, nuclear world, renewed geopolitics, rise of the third world. Us cant see the difference between nationalism and communism. Bull that carries around his own china shop fought the wars. The new look sought to reduce conventional forces and to build up a massive nuclear arsenal. 10 point declaration: the spirit of bandung . Led to creation of the non-alignment movement, belgrade, 1961. Us declines as they support independence, but most of their allies have colonial interests and they have their own domestic racial problems to contend with. The us was also very racist at this time and labelled many of the third world countries seeking independence as communist: the cia and covert action: iran, guatemala and congo. Washington and the americans learn that there was some idea that they were involved.