HIS109Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Lettre De Cachet, Huguenot, Tyrant

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS109Y1
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of 3
HIS109Y1- Lecture Sixteen
Absolutism
November 5/2012
A. du Plessis de Richelieu (1585-1642)
Louis XIII (1610-43)
Marie de Medicis
La Rochelle
Caston d 'Orleans
Castelnaudry
intendant
lettres de cachet
Absolutism
-the decisions/wins of the prince has the force of the law
-Richelieu turned the situation of the 30 years war and shaped it. He saved Protestant
Germany from the HRE
-When the French king was assassinated in 1610 by a monk, an 8 year old was left in
charge of the throne leaving a power vacuum for the nobles
-Richelieu sued France from the HRE
-Henry's widow (marie) hated her son Louis XHI who inherited the throne; she lived
only for pleasure
-she was custodian for her 8 year old son which meant for years France was run by the
Queen's favourites who were mostly Italian.
-they managed everything which bothered Louis. When he turned 16, he ordered the
death of the Queen's favourite
-Louis decided to become King officially when he was 16. He needed someone to give
him good advice
- Hugenots in France? Influence by the pope
-Louis hired Richelieu as his first minister. Richelieu was born into a good family as the
2nd son which meant he was educated rather than being taught to fight
-Richelieu spoke to the Pope and lied about his age (23 not 21) to become a Bishop,
and get a job in France
-he improved the education of the clergy captured the attention of Louis
-1614: he called a state's General where Richelieu proved himself and the Queen Marie
made him secretary of state
-When she was banished, he was associated with them and was seen as a danger;
exiled the Aignon
-Queen escaped and tried to instigate war against Louis. Richelieu was then recalled to
negotiate with the Queen, as long as he was made a Cardinal
- he succeeded in convincing the Queen and was made Chief Minister in 1624
- Louis gave most of his responsibility to Richelieu. He decided to:
1) Control the Hugenots
2) Remove power from feudal nobility
3) Control Habsburgs from overtaking France
- Protestant authority was diminished and they became a colony inside France
-Richelieu fared them not because they were Protestant but because they could still
divide France and could serve as a trojan horse for France's enemies
- Richelieu put together an army and sieged the protestant city of La Rochelle
-Once the Protestants surrendered, he didn't take away their rights but did the opposite;
acknowledged the Protestants as a valid religion and allowed them to remain armed
-The only thing he required was the walls of La Rochelle so they could not contest the
power of the king
-Richelieu realized that 2 religions could exist in the same state as long as they both
followed the Crown
-This benefited the economy of France because of their innate Calvinist ethics and their
own education system
-nobles were still an issue since they still had incredible influence. Power of crown was
being dissipated amongst nobles. Often acted as independent Princes
-in order to centralize power, Richelieu had to remove private fortresses that were not
belonging to the King. Some obeyed, others didn't
-He banned dueling between the 2 noble groups since it gave the impression that laws
didn't apply to the nobles. It was forbidden but 2 young men fought a duel under
Richelieu's window. He had them arrested and beheaded to prove the point that
regardless of status, everyone is subject to the king's law
-Nobles felt Richelieu was a tyrant so they aligned themselves with the Queen. She
realized as long as Richelieu was around, her power was controlled
-Louis chose Richelieu so the Queen decided to lead a rebellion
-she went to the Netherlands to do so; civil war seemed inevitable (1632)
-another issue arose when Gaston, Louis’ younger brother joined the rebellion as long
as he would be crowned king
- noble's were defeated at the battle of Castlenaudry
-Gaston was captured and gave Richelieu the names of all the rebel leaders. They
were all executed
-Now that Richelieu expelled nobility, he became responsible for taxation etc..
- they were loyal to Richelieu since they had no power on their own
-France was generally better governed and equal
-Richelieu set up a system of spies to prevent opposition to rebels. They were given
lettres de cachet which meant they were thrown in jail for as long as the king wished
- All these steps meant the crown and therefore his advisors had absolute power
-Richelieu's policies ruined the economy of France by raising taxes. He didn't care
about human suffering
-He founded many of the cultural institutions of France so it was not relied on military
power
- He died in 1642.
- Louis XIII lasted only a few months after Richelieu's death; then he died
-Richelieu’s policies meant that France could survive the 30 years war and become the
most powerful state based upon absolutism

Document Summary

November 5/2012: du plessis de richelieu (1585-1642) The decisions/wins of the prince has the force of the law. Richelieu turned the situation of the 30 years war and shaped it. When the french king was assassinated in 1610 by a monk, an 8 year old was left in charge of the throne leaving a power vacuum for the nobles. Henry"s widow (marie) hated her son louis xhi who inherited the throne; she lived only for pleasure. She was custodian for her 8 year old son which meant for years france was run by the. When he turned 16, he ordered the death of the queen"s favourite. Louis decided to become king officially when he was 16. He needed someone to give him good advice. Louis hired richelieu as his first minister. Richelieu was born into a good family as the. 2nd son which meant he was educated rather than being taught to fight.