HIS109Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Ignatius Of Loyola, Professional Soldier

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13 Feb 2016
The Wars of Religion — History Lecture, October 26
The power of the state should be used to control every aspect of a citizen’s life, idea endorsed by the
The idea that the state has the right to do anything arose after the 16th century; assassination of political
enemies, etc., if needed. — raisons d’étates
The Roman Catholic Church had lost millions of adherents and huge amounts of revenue and it was
necessary for them to fight back, they wanted to stop the losses so that Catholics could control everything
again. The Church organized itself in the model of a powerful, centralized monarchy to stop the Protestant
spread and return people back to the Catholic empire.
Pope Paul III was elected and wanted to achieve a response through the revolution of the Reformation
which required a general council that represented Catholic christendom, they had the authority to reshape
The council first met in the Italian city of Trent and the problems were so huge that it took 20 years before
the final report was issued. The most important matters determined between 1545 and 1643 is to reaffirm
the very things that Luther, Calvin, and others said were wrong - the church said that they were in fact
right. (ie. 7 Sacraments, predestination was rejection, etc)
The Roman Inquisition: Catholics were told what to do and what not to do. There was prohibition of
books and penalties for reading these forbidden books and this prohibition was only lifted in 1966. The
number of books on this list grew and grew every year, going far beyond just Protestant books but
Descartes, Machiavelli, etc.
Ignatius Loyola and the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits. They were incredibly successful in Europe, South
America, Asia, etc. Loyola was a professional soldier and fought as a feudal knight in the late Middle
Ages. He had an accident and he had an extremely long convalescence to recover and he started reading
and he realized that he shouldn’t be fighting for the king against the king’s enemies but fighting for Christ
and Christ’s enemies. He entered the monastery and had a vision that lasted for 8 days, wrote a book
afterwards of his experience in the military. Loyola took a humanist curriculum that helped to reinforce
Catholic belief in his creation of the Jesuits. These Jesuit schools would educate though who were
destined to be the leaders in society, those who were well-born, rich, the elite of Catholic Church, and
they taught rational argumentation, reading, and thinking.
One of the most awful violent times of Europe were the religious wars. At the end of the Council of Trent,
it seemed Philip II of Spain was destined to control European affairs and had so much wealth that was
coming in every single day, he believed he was god’s minister and wanted to make sure the Protestants
were oppressed.
Philip II decided that he would not permit the spread of Calvinism in the Netherlands. In order to stop it,
he brought the Jesuits in to reeducate and control the spread of these ideas. However, people had
associated Calvinism with Dutch freedom and Catholicism with their oppressive Spanish controllers.
Philip II underestimated how much the Dutch hated the Spanish and how they would do anything to get
away from Catholicism and the Spaniards. The Spanish Army was getting repeatedly shot down by the
Dutch and eventually they mutinied. 1579: 7 Dutch provinces came together to be ruled by William of
Orange, who died, but his son kept the Spanish out as well
1609: The Spanish had to recognize the existence of another country that was not Spain, United Provinces
of Holland
1648: Autonomous state
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