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September 21, 2010
Narratives of Encounter: Early Aboriginal-European Interactions
Altantic Ocean is the considered as the fundamental unit of analysis (Ian Steele:
think of the Atlantic as a highway that allows for all sorts of activity like networks of
trade, migration, disease, ideas, revolutionary ideologies) known as the Atlantic
World, focuses on the Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
New Worlds (the Viking age, early European explorations)
The Viking Age
Leif Eiriksson; Vinlnad: 1000 AD, assembles a crew of 35 people, se to explore the
territory south of Greenland, vinland contains different species of berries, located on
modern day Newfoundland, saw timber, vital source of fuel in which heat could be created
Beothuk; Mikmaq: 19th century the Beothuk ceased to exist, temporary cooling, impossible
to substain agriculture, 1450: norse voyages to vinland had come to an end, European
powers (spain, france, portugal and England) would replace the Scandinavians
Explorations in the Early Modern Era
Factors: competition between imperial powers; commerce (trade, mid-16th century,
Europeans could find a westerly route known as the Indies); Christianity (spurs European
powers to gain more power)
Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot): henry vii enlist him to participate in one of these voyages,
1497 finds territory that would be called newfoundland
Grand Banks: unusually shallow, aquatic life, eastern newfoundland, the first big business
of North America, fish traders would cross the Atlantic Ocean from Europe, especially
England, French to become the dominant European power, had twice the population of
Portugal and spain put together, 6 times the population of england
Giovanni de Verrazano: France relied on him to launch the first exploration, to find the
westerly route to the indies, but fails; gain crucial knowledge of the layout of the Americas
Jacques Cartiers Voyages (staking Frances claim)
Jacques Cartier: 1534: finds the gulf of st. Lawrence, encounter aboriginal people
(Mikmaq), reluctant to interact with the Mikmaq, aboriginal people are only interested in
trading with the European people, plants a cross, reflects a presume superiority for
Christianity, reflects that Cartier was staking a claim for France, curiosity and arrogance,
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