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Lecture Note

Course Code
Mc Kim

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HIS263 Sept 21
Narratives of Encounters: Early Aboriginal-European Interactions
New way of interpreting history has emerged in the past 15 years
Shift away from thinking of nation state as the fundamental unit of analysis
More attention paid to Atlantic ocean
Takes into account all continents that touch the Atlantic ocean
Atlantic as a highway rather than a barrier
Networks of trade, commercial activity, immigration, disease, ideas
The Atlantic World
Early modern period focus circa 1500 1800
1500: early exploration by Europeans
2 themes Viking age, European explorations
crucial voyages Jacques Cartier
staking Frances claim on sovereignty
9th 12th Century: Scandinavians worlds principal skills on the seas as well as
fearsome capacity for waging war
1000 A.D. Leif Eriksson
explores south of Greenland
arrives at an attractive location
mild climate, rich array of plant life, and various species of berries
called it Vinland land of wines
North-eastern tip of modern-day Newfoundland
1960 archaeologist found evidence of an old Norse settlement
over 500 years, the Norse made frequent voyages to Newfoundland for timbre
it was used as fuel, building material, and they interacted with the aboriginal
likely either the Beothuk group or Mikmaq group
During the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries, Norse presence began to decline
Temporary cooling of Earths temperature
Made it difficult for agriculture
1450 Norse voyages to Vinland ended
during early modern era, Spain, Portugal, England and France became primary
powers on international waters
became the primary explorers
Factors for exploration
To out-do the other rivals
Widely believed that by travelling west, they could find the Indies spices, salts,
silks, etc.
Urge to convert and spread Christian ideas
Moral/ethical obligation to spread their views
1492 Christopher Columbus
successful in search for land to west
he was an Italian hired by the Spanish royalty
public-private partnership
news of the discovery spread fast
other monarchs heralded to task
Henry VII of England
Hired Giovanni Cabotto (John Cabot)
1497 found Newfoundland
impressed by concentration of codfish in the Grand Banks off the east coast of
the cod fish industry would become the first big business of North America
took lead as the worlds most skilled navigators
they took frequent voyages to this coast and fished
Spring and summer, all countries would participate in fishing
The English became the largest participants
As many as 10,000 people participated in the fishing