Early European-Aboriginal Interactions

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14 Feb 2011
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HIS263Y1Narratives of Encounter:Tuesday September 21st 2010
Early Aboriginal-European Interactions
The new framework for studying history represents a shift away from the views of
the nation-state as the unit of analysis towards the Atlantic ocean as the unit of
analysis
This framework takes into account all four continents that touch on the Atlantic:
Europe, Africa, and the Americas
The Atlantic as a highway that allows for activity between the continents (trans-
Atlantic activity) such as trading networks, migration networks, disease network,
ideology network
Atlantic World is the name of this framework, concentrating on the early-modern
period (roughly 1500 1800), an era of early exploration
the end of this period marks the rise of the nation-state
New Worlds
The Viking Age
9th to 12th centuries
The Scandinavians were the mariners of the world
Skill on the seas, fearsome capacity for war
Leif Eirksson
Sets out to explore Greenlands south
He arrives in 1000 AD, at an attractive location (boasting relatively mild climate)
dubbing it Vinland (Wine Land)
There is debate as to where Vinland is, but there is evidence that it was the NE tip
of Newfoundland
In 1960, Archaeologists come across evidence of an old Norse settlement in the NE of
Newfoundland, thought to confirm this hypothesis
For the next 500 years, the Norse would make frequent journeys to this area
For timber
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HIS263Y1Narratives of Encounter:Tuesday September 21
st 2010
Early Aboriginal-European Interactions
Interacted and possibly engaged in trade with Aboriginal North Americans
It is unclear which groups the Norsemen interacted with
Their trips to this area declined during the 13-15
th centuries
One factor contributing to this decline is a temporary cooling of the Earths
temperature, making it more difficult to settle Greenland
1450: Norse expeditions came to an end
Beothuk and Mikmaq
Aboriginal groups the Norse may have interacted with
Early Modern European Explorations
Spain, Portugal, England, and France would replace the Norse as the Atlantic
explorers
Factors
1.Rivalry: competition between these powers
2.Commerce: Trade. Into the mid-16th century, it was widely believed that by
travelling
westward, a route to the Indies (Modern South and East Asia)
3.Religion: Religious fervour spurs these European powers to convert Christianity
throughout
the world
Christopher Columbus, an Italian, was funded by the Spanish crown
News of Columbus successful voyage reached monarchs of other European states
Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot)
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HIS263Y1Narratives of Encounter:Tuesday September 21st 2010
Early Aboriginal-European Interactions
Henry VII of England hires John Cabot to participate in a transatlantic voyage
Cabot reaches land, a New Found Land, in June 1497, now modern Newfoundland
Cabot was struck by the rich concentration of cod fish off the eastern coast of
Newfoundland in the Grand Banks
Grand Banks
The waters here are unusually shallow for the Atlantic Ocean, resulting it a great
concentration of sea life
The cod fishing industry would become the first big business of North America
The Portuguese would also try to take advantage of this area
Spanish, French, English fishers would participate in great fishing fleets, crossing
the Atlantic ocean, with the objective of exploiting the cod stocks in the Grand Banks
The primary participants in this business are the English
As many as 10,000 people a year participated in the cod fishery business off the
coast of Newfoundland
It was the French, however, who were poised to become the dominant European
power in North America
France, in the beginning of the early modern era, had twice the population of
Portugal and Spain put together, and six times the population of England
France also had numerous ports that could be the basis of various maritime activity
France was also very wealthy in this period
Giovanni de Verrazano
In 1524, France, relying on Giovanni de Verrazano launched its first exploration of
the New World
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Document Summary

The new framework for studying history represents a shift away from the views of the nation-state as the unit of analysis towards the atlantic ocean as the unit of analysis. This framework takes into account all four continents that touch on the atlantic: The atlantic as a highway that allows for activity between the continents (trans- Atlantic activity) such as trading networks, migration networks, disease network, ideology network. atlantic world period (roughly 1500 1800), an era of early exploration is the name of this framework, concentrating on the early-modern the end of this period marks the rise of the nation-state. The scandinavians were the mariners of the world. skill on the seas, fearsome capacity for war: leif eirksson. he arrives in 1000 ad, at an attractive location (boasting relatively mild climate) dubbing it vinland (wine land) There is debate as to where vinland is, but there is evidence that it was the ne tip of newfoundland.

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