HIS343Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Giorgio Agamben, Cryptanalysis, Okhrana

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2 Nov 2015
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INTELLIGENCE ORIGINS: PART 1
THEORY
Ravelry – online
SEARCHING FOR A DEFINITON
-What is intelligence
oPersonal, cultural and also about power;
oCentred around specific events – trying to understand the importance of main
events and intelligence around it
oDifferent studies that might not take intelligence into account
oContinual attempts to try to define it;
oOnce defined – then you have boundaries; need to distinguish it from other
activities and other agencies; part of the need for definition is the need for
accountability;
-As such need for a theory  boundaries and limits;
oDistinction between information and intelligence
-Scandal  intelligence?
oPolitical scandal as most significant topics; 1970s, Watergate Scandal; such events
open up the world of secrecy;
-intelligence as power; monopolistic power of the state
oconcern: if we don’t understand it, we can’t understand how policy is devised for
intelligence;
owe can’t understand political power either;
-early studies of intelligence centred around great power and great men;
-over time, globalization of intelligence;
THE EVOLUTION OF INTELLIGENCE IN ACADEMIA
-Early origins: intelligence as Strategic – Military
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oWWI, realization for analyzing enemy information to get an edge on the enemy;
oPoliticians became users/customers of intelligence
oIntelligence vehicles/means of delivering intelligence (papers); process of back-
stopping
oIntelligence mainly used as a warning device; intelligence provides facts, coupled
with experience and book knowledge, then you could make sound policy
decisions;
oEarlier, as a means to put together a puzzle;
oThis view of intelligence changed in the mid-twentieth century;
-Sherman Kent: Intelligence as Knowledge
oKnowledge, organization and activity can be studied as social science; strategic
intelligence as “Shield to the sword”;
oDescriptive, forecasting, manipulation;
oIntelligence organizations have no reason for being just for the sake of existence;
oIntelligence to be treated as a social science; as such, less focus on secrecy;
oIn this light, intelligence as information; still reliance on secrecy; however, focus
on analysis;
oGood analysis = good intelligence
oWith this interpretation, strategic intelligence as an extension of search for
knowledge – informed decision;
-“Shield to the Sword”
-A Social Science
-“Strategic intelligence is the knowledge upon which a nation’s foreign relations, in war
and peace, must rest.” Sherman Kent
INTELLIGENCE AS STATE FUNCION
-Part of state machinery
-Part of bureaucracy/organizational structure
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oHigher quality: clear, timely, reliable, valid, adequate AND doesn’t exist;
-Problems: goal setting, control, innovation, intelligence problems; competition
oSometimes intelligence failures rooted in the structural problems of organizations;
not always solved but reduced;
-Part of policy: relevant to governments forming policy in defining national security
-Terms: “Official Covers,” “walk ins,” “Tradecraft,” IMINIT, SIGINT, COMINT
(communications between people, or radio), TELINT (eavesdropping on missile
communications, ELIINT, OSINT (public source), HUMINT (agents, informants, walk
ins)
-Official Covers: intelligence officers posing as diplomats
-Walk ins: walking into an embassy;
-Tradecraft: activities of intelligence officers and analysts;
-All this technical intelligence gathering as traffic; however, cannot tell intention; as such
need for analysis;
-CAUSES FOR INTELLIGENCE FAILURES: subordinating intelligence to policy;
mirror imaging (judging unfamiliar situations on the bases of familiar situations)
OTHER FORMS
-Covert action
oSupporting friendly governments by trying to influence events
oSharing intelligence
oInfluencing perceptions of people by using agents
oUsing information and disinformation;
oTrying to influence perceptions in foreign societies; propaganda; forgeries;
oProviding support for friendly political forces
oDirect: paramilitary
-Counter-intelligence
oCountering enemy attempts of subversive attacks
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