HIS343Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Giorgio Agamben, Cryptanalysis, Okhrana

64 views11 pages
2 Nov 2015
Ravelry – online
-What is intelligence
oPersonal, cultural and also about power;
oCentred around specific events – trying to understand the importance of main
events and intelligence around it
oDifferent studies that might not take intelligence into account
oContinual attempts to try to define it;
oOnce defined – then you have boundaries; need to distinguish it from other
activities and other agencies; part of the need for definition is the need for
-As such need for a theory  boundaries and limits;
oDistinction between information and intelligence
-Scandal  intelligence?
oPolitical scandal as most significant topics; 1970s, Watergate Scandal; such events
open up the world of secrecy;
-intelligence as power; monopolistic power of the state
oconcern: if we don’t understand it, we can’t understand how policy is devised for
owe can’t understand political power either;
-early studies of intelligence centred around great power and great men;
-over time, globalization of intelligence;
-Early origins: intelligence as Strategic – Military
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
oWWI, realization for analyzing enemy information to get an edge on the enemy;
oPoliticians became users/customers of intelligence
oIntelligence vehicles/means of delivering intelligence (papers); process of back-
oIntelligence mainly used as a warning device; intelligence provides facts, coupled
with experience and book knowledge, then you could make sound policy
oEarlier, as a means to put together a puzzle;
oThis view of intelligence changed in the mid-twentieth century;
-Sherman Kent: Intelligence as Knowledge
oKnowledge, organization and activity can be studied as social science; strategic
intelligence as “Shield to the sword”;
oDescriptive, forecasting, manipulation;
oIntelligence organizations have no reason for being just for the sake of existence;
oIntelligence to be treated as a social science; as such, less focus on secrecy;
oIn this light, intelligence as information; still reliance on secrecy; however, focus
on analysis;
oGood analysis = good intelligence
oWith this interpretation, strategic intelligence as an extension of search for
knowledge – informed decision;
-“Shield to the Sword”
-A Social Science
-“Strategic intelligence is the knowledge upon which a nation’s foreign relations, in war
and peace, must rest.” Sherman Kent
-Part of state machinery
-Part of bureaucracy/organizational structure
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
oHigher quality: clear, timely, reliable, valid, adequate AND doesn’t exist;
-Problems: goal setting, control, innovation, intelligence problems; competition
oSometimes intelligence failures rooted in the structural problems of organizations;
not always solved but reduced;
-Part of policy: relevant to governments forming policy in defining national security
-Terms: “Official Covers,” “walk ins,” “Tradecraft,” IMINIT, SIGINT, COMINT
(communications between people, or radio), TELINT (eavesdropping on missile
communications, ELIINT, OSINT (public source), HUMINT (agents, informants, walk
-Official Covers: intelligence officers posing as diplomats
-Walk ins: walking into an embassy;
-Tradecraft: activities of intelligence officers and analysts;
-All this technical intelligence gathering as traffic; however, cannot tell intention; as such
need for analysis;
-CAUSES FOR INTELLIGENCE FAILURES: subordinating intelligence to policy;
mirror imaging (judging unfamiliar situations on the bases of familiar situations)
-Covert action
oSupporting friendly governments by trying to influence events
oSharing intelligence
oInfluencing perceptions of people by using agents
oUsing information and disinformation;
oTrying to influence perceptions in foreign societies; propaganda; forgeries;
oProviding support for friendly political forces
oDirect: paramilitary
oCountering enemy attempts of subversive attacks
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.