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Session #10 - Antemurale Christianitatis

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University of Toronto St. George
Piotr Wrobel

October 11 , 2012 “ANTEMURALE CHRISTIANITATIS” POLAND-LITHUANIA AND HUNGARY  Bulwark of Christianity – “Antemurale Chrisitianitatis” – Before the 18 c. Poland-Lithuania, Bohemia, and Hungary were the most important th  By the 14 c. they had reached the level of development of the West  Basically these were family enterprises as they were ruled by native dynasties Ex. Poland - Piast dynasty  Nobility became very important in all these countries  These three kingdoms went through an economic transformation  After the Mongolian invasion and such destruction, there was a large space in Hungary, needing new settlers – many Germans moved to ECE  Growing development of education – 1348, the first university was established in Eastern Europe in Prague and 1364 a university was est. in Krakow  There were many Tatar khanates established to the East of these empires (Crimean Khanate)  Problems began at the beginning of the 14 c. – local dynasties died out and new ones were necessary  In Poland, the people accepted the Lithuanian dynasty and these two regions were united – the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ~ At the time, the Lithuania region was a mixture of Ruthian peoples who had been subjugated by the Mongols ~ After 1569, this was a close personal union Poland-Lithuania  One of the main reasons Poland and Lithuania united was to defend themselves against the Teutonic knights  Another reason was their exposure to the steppe and the Tatars as well as the growing state of Muscovy  In the southeast of this union, a new population emerged – the Cossacks  These Cossacks were supposed to protect the Commonwealth from the Crimean Khanate – this fighting with Tatars became a way of life  In the late 15 c. the Tatar Khanate became a vassal of Turkey – Ottoman link Hungary  A. Dynasty – 1000 AD, King Stephen obtained the crown from Rome  Croatia was incorporated into Hungary but after the Mongolian invasion, Hungary was struggling  Who would rule? – a French dynasty was settled which was supported by the Pope  After 1370, there was a common king in Poland and Hungary but this died out (1382) October 11 , 2012  1440 – Hungarian nobility asked king of Poland to become the king of Hungary because of the growing threat from the south  This king was pressed by the nobility and Rome to organize a military opposition against the Turks (the last crusade)  Huge Poland-Lithuanian expedition against Turkey accompanied by Hungary  1444 – the army was destroyed by the Turks and the king was killed  A turning point came at the beginning of the 16 c. – 1526 Battle of , the Turks destroyed the Hungarian army and subjugated the pop.  Hungary was divided into three parts – one along the river Danube was absorbed into the Ottoman Empire (the most fertile Hungarian lands were ruled by the Turks until the end o
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