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Gender in/and colonial administration

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University of Toronto St. George
Nhung Tuyet Tran

W15 - Gender inand Colonial Administration 19:17 Three Modes of Colonization All three were found in Africa Dominion Mode Protectorate Mode Take over politically but leave the land to the native people The Settler Mode Best example is Kenya Europeans come in and settle, taking over what was often the most fertile land The differences in the pre-existing situation and arrangement political, social & econ and the differences in the mode of colonization is no different than the mode exploitation We need to understand what was happening in pre-colonial societies (1 term) Patriarchal ideology and colonial state organization The colonial state was a patriarchal state The African states as we know them today (with the exception of newly created states Eritrea and hopefully Southern Sudan) are colonial states and therefore, by default, are patriarchal states Institutions previously vibrant and necessary, now in the new setup, become less relevant and have to be reconstituted for colonial purposes The colonial purpose is accumulation extraction of resources and exploitation of labour Berlin Conference 1885 Colonial states of Africa largely created between 1890-1914 These were established through violence Africa was the last phase of European expansion This last phase of expansion and conquest reached its climax in 1890 Had to turn this into stable political control Machine guns could destroy villages, but could not secure production, trade or tax revenue Military power had to be converted to political authority under civilian rule In order to do this, two things had to be done Had to be done with the unspoken consent from the Africans Create viable economies that will link the colonial power states with the new colony Europeans had unquestioned belief about the superiority of their culture This superiority complex dominated their attitudes in every aspect of administration This imparted on the way policies, laws, etc. were interpreted and executed The colonial rule throughout the continent was underpinned by coercion, sexism, racism was often violent, exploited and traumatic experience Colonial rule was marked by successive rebellions by Africans Its impact varied enormously across time, from region to region, colony to colony, between men and women, young and old, and according to a multitude of social, economic and political factors that were shaped as much by the colonizers as by the African condition itself Imperial powers that partitioned Africa at the Berlin Conference could be divided into four categories: Already established commercial interests on the continent (Britain, France, and Portugal)
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