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HIS365 Ecological Revolution October 3 2012.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Steve Penfold

HIS365 Ecological Revolution October 3 2012 Land - The vast majority of the resettlement process float into rural areas in first th half of 19 c - 1825 only 3 % of UC lived in towns - Getting established on the land - Early on free land grants were given to attract settlers. Ended in UC in 1820s. So people have to spend money to acquire land - Renting the land is common - A lot of tension and conflict of allotting land. What system should we use? - Large land grants go to people as a patronage. UC this was often an explicit project of trying to build up a local aristocracy. In US the giving of land to friends was patronage or - Large block of land not rewarded to everyday farmers. This causes conflicts - ^ drives up the cost of land (supply and demand), absentee owners hold back the entire area, 1824 UC law passed for people who hadn’t paid their taxes in 8 years u had to pay or forfeit the land (law to try to get rid of absentee owners), - over time the settlement started to get heavier - movement Improvement - Once you get a plot of land you need to improve it - There’s an economic incentive and it’s a condition of settlement. Requirement of clearing every year - The family is the key unit for this process of improvement - The family is cooperative but patriarchal. Whole family economy is geared toward working the land - The family is patriarchal so not equal. The man owns the property, women couldn’t own land - Division of labour: gender and age. Men do the land clearing and working the fields, women make candles, butcher meat, sew, tend the garden - Improvement was slow and gradual - 1 step: clear the land of trees Plants - Complete remaking of the environment (resettlement) - Transformation of forested landscape to open landscape - Replacing them with new types of plans - Clearing is necessary to have a farm - The subjugation of the forest - A lot of trees is burned for fuel - Introducing new plants. Settlers brought with them seeds, plants etc. - One of they key crops is wheat- not a native crop - Wheat, oats and rye- not native to the area - Accidental introductions like Scottish thistles - Farming involved knowing nature Animals - The beaver had been hunted out by the 1800 - Bears, wolves, foxes that they tend to remove - Moving away of the existing animals because of the fur trade or the threat they are to domestic animals - Massive numbers of domesticated animals are introduced - A big kill began. Passenger pigeons were almost entirely eradicated. - A complete remaking of the ecology of the area - The resettlement process involved in changing nature After the Revolution - Resettlement process advanced by 1860s - Emigration - Change does continue in farms- get bigger, a shift in crops overtime gets much less dependent on wheat more mixed farming, this means more animals, - The settlement dynamic changes- urbanization increases The Big Catch The Grace M Incident - 1905 - Armed vessel stopped an American fishing boat the Grace M that was allegedly fishing on the Canadian side - Region defined by lakes - It highlighted the degree of tension that emerged around the commercial fishery on the lakes - The fluid border on the water - The b
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