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SESSION 2 AND 3.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Piotr Wr�bel

Note: Some terms may not be spelled correctly Session 2 – September 13, 2012 – HIS251 Geographical features of ECE -Carpathian Mountains are a major feature and helps to divide the area -has a “breadbasket” area kind of around present day Ukraine, very fertile -Certain flat areas made it easier for armies to march through or invade When Christianity was introduced, it allowed for larger centralized kingdoms of monarch rule (by divine right). Differences between Central, East, and East Central Europe Central Europe 4 terms for the region: 1) “Settlement in the East” or Osteidlung 2) “Middle Europe – mittleleuropa – prominent in the 19th Century and used during WW1 3) “Pushing into the East” – drangnachosten – also a WW1, WW2 term. Refers to Germany’s need to colonize the East for its resources 4) Lebensraum – idea to “depopulate” the area or kill off the non-Germans and take control. Central Europe is more so orientated toward Germany. There was an idea or concept that the Slavs should serve Germany. Eastern Europe *Lenburg – currently Lviv, Ukraine. Kept changing between Polish and Ukrainian rule (1918). After ww2 Stalin reorganizes by kicking out the Poles and making Leviv an exclusively Ukrainian city. East Central Europe -Very neutral -Term has only recently become popular/more widely used since the fall of the Soviet Union. Session 3 Ancient Times 40 000 BC Northern Europe had huge glaciers, water level 100 m less than today -Homo-sapiens vs. Neanderthal -12 000 years ago glaciers begin retreating -Sea level goes up -10 000 years ago – one more spell of cold weather -9000 BC was the beginning of agriculture (which is revolutionary) It spread from the middle east to east central Europe and then finally to western Europe Europe was a “friendly” continent---easy to pass borders, nice climate, and good resources. This time sees domesticated animals, new tools, pottery, etc. Bronze Age People learned how to produce tin, copper and most importantly bronze which is most efficient. 1628 BC – huge volcanic eruption wiped out this civilization because the ashes and dust covered the sun. Iron Age -Probably when the Slavic people emerged -Corridor between 2 seas – Baltic and black -1000 BC the (Syphian?) people came from Asia following Nomads. Mixed with population and introduced new ways of life. -900 BC new greeks civilization Macedonian Empire – 300 bc Greeks established colonies along the black sea 2nd Century BC – Germanic tribes travelled down from Scandinavia, eventually dominating ECE. They eventually left but some stayed in the beautiful Crimea. ROMAN EMPIRE started as a small kingdom in Italy. By 362 AD the Roman Empire dominated most of Europe, controlling Romania for a bit too. Ptolemy (from Alexandria) created a world map which represents people’s perception of the world at that time. 170 Dacia was part of the Roman Empire but there were barbarians, abandoned in 270. -Roman empire was the first state with an official army that actu
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