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HIS103Y Lecture 34 February 13th. The Great War, 1914-18 Part II

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University of Toronto St. George
Vasilis Dimitriadis

HIS103Y Lecture 34 February 13th. The Great War, 1914-18 Part II  Circumventing the Western Front was unsuccessful for the Allies  Germany – how to break the Royal Navy – unrestricted submarine warfare U-boat sink any boat, regardless of nation, in N. Atlantic to starve out Great Britain  Lloyd George forced Admiralty to set up convoys for merchant ships Great Britain counter-measures beat back U-boat threat  U-boat strategy failed because did not consider possible counter-measures  U-boat strategy also risked war with the US  Zimmermann Telegram – Germany offers Mexico an alliance against the U.S. This top secret telegram was intercepted by Great Britain intelligence – handed to Woodrow Wilson  Next March 1917 American ships, Lusitania, with high casualties sunk – April 1917 US declares war on Central Powers. America not yet ready for war, but defeats U-boat campaign o US merchant companies and fleet at the availability of the Allies  Shipping abilities towards Great Britain and France increase o US navy join Great Britain in convoys for merchant shipping o Germany had 100’s of ships in US ports – seized by gov and were used to transport ½ million troops to the western front  Failed French offensive at Chemin Des Dames starts mutiny ‘not against the war, but the war it was fought.’ French go on defensive  Great Britain, April 1917, Canadians seize Vimy Ridge, but this success not further exploited by high command. Hage continues to press on mindlessly – Passchendaele – offensive was a bloody catastrophe.  Oct Germany takes all land bade in 3 days if cou
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