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Louis XIV, William III, Dutch War, Nine Years War

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Denis Smyth

1) Louis XIV, William III, Dutch War, Nine Years War On Strategy and Statecraft September 11 • 20 century- massive reduction in violence • basic needs of human beings: ◦ substance, (economic) shelter (cultural), society(diplomatic), security (strategic) ◦ most important- physical survival security (national or personal) need laws • challenge of depending collective security hasn't become easier ◦ until 20 ce- challenge 2D overseas/land- after 1900s 3D- aircraft and later Internet- 4D • purpose of state- defend and promote interests of physical protection • How to achieve order/stability ◦ international relations- state gentleman among thieves- negotiations are continued struggles ◦ national tendency- expansion (naturally selfish/aggressive) ◦ powers realize existence of other states necessary as condition of own survival The Legacy of the thirty years war and the peace of Westphalia September 17 • treaties of Munster and Osnabruck, and Pyreness- 1 step towards international relations ◦ ended 30 years war (one of most vicious) -collectively peace of Westphalia ◦ first in establishment of permanent embassies - dialogue between nations ◦ post-war conferences with all powers (winners or losers)- respect of states ▪ Catholic and Protestant groups held different conferences -Munster and Osnabruck ◦ most important- agreed territorial settlement- legitimate European borders even in 1789 state as the unchallenged guarantor of domestic order and legitimizer of external war” • 30 Years War- civil war within German political system ◦ secularized international relations- removed religious conflict as source of conflict ◦ Holy Roman Empire- 20 separate states, medium sized states wanted-sovereignty ◦ Austria- largest German empire- hoped to create one unified empire out of German states ▪ political self interest and religious self conviction(Protestant)- spread to whole continent ◦ Sweden joined war -Catholics winning- feared CatholicAustria gaining too much power • France Catholic but fought with Protestant power because fearedAustria ◦ battle of Rocroi- French army- smashed Spanish military -France now dominant power • Raison d'etat- interests of state constitutes the soul determinant of the legitimacy of its policy The Foreign Policy of Louis XIV and the Origins of the Dutch War September 19 • 2 important Outcomes of the Peace of Westphalia ◦ defeat of Hapsburg threat- possibility of non-imperial order appearing in Europe ◦ development of a working international system by pushing to periphery issue of religion • obvious problems after Peace of Westphalia -Catholic power of France- most dangerous threat • 1661-French powerful force- size of population- the more can tax- larger military ◦ size of army= peacetime-army- 100 000 at height of war- 400 000 ◦ “king's ambassadors must make it known that the king is never content with equality but should have preeminence over things and is in effect in possession of it already”- Louis • war with Dutch- in pursuit of la gloire-(reputation, glory, power) ◦ “reputation is more effective than the most powerful army” -Louis ◦ Louis- no system plan of Europe but view of international relations wasn't balance of power • July 1672 as French army strolling in to Dutch Republic (United Provinces of the Netherlands) • Social Imperialism-unite people through foreign wars- take care of rebellions at home ◦ Motive of revenge-1667-8- to conquer Spanish Netherlands • France wanted buffer- forced back because former ally (Dutch) was against France ◦ Luovois- French Secretary of state for War“only way to conquer the Spanish Netherlands is to humble the Dutch and if possible to destroy them” ◦ economic controversy growing between French and Dutch, tariff war ▪ Dutch- most important maritime power- greater than England ▪ fixed quantity of trade in world and Dutch had large share- only way to steal The course and Conclusion of the Dutch War 1672-1679 September 24 • Why French directed attack at Dutch?- Strategic grounds ◦ as 30 years war show Spanish Netherlands natural highway for foreign armies into France ◦ England, Sweden, Dutch joined to back France away from Spanish Netherlands • Louis needed alliances England- Charles II ▪ 1640s -troubles over constitution- Charles wanted power from House of Commons ▪ financially insufficient- needed subsidies from France- lent army and navy to France ▪ Treaty of Dover- June 1670- unpopular alliance that England actually lost out in ◦ Louis frustrated in finding other allies ▪ 2 other German states- Cologne and Munster- geopolitically very strategic ◦ Sweden- promised neutrality to Louis- Louis thought it was enough • Dutch reacted with vigour ◦ Netherlands mostly below seal level- seal walls- opened sea walls to protectAmsterdam • 1672- 22 year old William III of Orange became Dutch leader (Stadholder) ◦ military leader-controlled all military activity but not great commander-no match for France ◦ great diplomat- persuaded other countries fate of Republic crucial for survival of Europe ▪ converted Spain,Austria, Sweden, and Branden
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