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War of Spanish Succession, Peace of Utrecht, Prussia

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University of Toronto St. George
Denis Smyth

2) War of Spanish Succession, Peace of Utrecht, Prussia making of European balance of power: origins of War of the Spanish Succession 1702-1712/13 • common desire for peace but France still formidable standing army ◦ matched all of allied armies combined- 150 000 infantry men and 30 000 cavalry men • June 16 1698- Louis XIV- “Peace can only be upset by eventuality of the king of Spain's death” ◦ Charles II of Spain had no obvious successor- all potential candidates in other empires ◦ Archduke Charles ofAustria ▪ if Spanish territory were added toAustria, rest of Europe will drown • would be able to dominate the whole of European continent ◦ Spain- had Southern Netherlands, Milan, Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia ◦ Southern Netherlands natural battleground- survival of Dutch depended on this buffer ▪ 1697- Dutch garrisoned key frontiers • despite William's suspicion of what Louis might have in mind for Spanish, had pressure from political and economic industrial and military to scale down after peace ◦ 1698 July- Letter Louis wrote to Tallard- now favoured peace negotiations ◦ “No interest appears to me more pressing than preserving the tranquillity they now enjoy” • Dutch concern with Southern Netherlands- as long as no French candidate Dutch happy • Austrian Empire wanted Italian territory- Duchy of Milan • 1698 October 11 William and Louis signed partition treaty ◦ allocated entire Spanish lands to Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria ▪ compromising because Joseph had no connection with any major power ▪ some compensation would be provided for France andAustrian empire ▪ Archduke Charles to receive Duchy of Milan, Dauphin of France Naples, Sicily, etc • Joseph's death and French commitment of Peace ◦ Second Partition Treaty ▪ virtually everything to go toArchduke Charles, Dauphin- Duchy of Lorraine • Duke of Lorraine to become Duke of Milan -Austrians protest • Aug 1699Austrian diplomat: “What we want is Milan, Naples, and Sicily the rest can be taken by whoever wants it” • Spaniards had definite viewpoint of what would happen to their lands ◦ Cardinal archbishop of Toledo ▪ adamantly opposed to any partition of Spanish lands across the 4 continents ◦ equally convinced that France had the most able skills at administration and governing ▪ hoped for French royal heir - Spanish needed Bourbon style reform • 1700 November- Charles II signed a will largely drawn by Toledo-Revisions- • candidate chosen to be offered entire Spanish lands- Philip duke ofAnjou if he accepted the will ▪ conditional- Philip to renounce all French inheritance- neither he nor his successors ▪ If Philip ofAnjou rejected the deal everything will go toArchduke Charles • Placed Louis in delicate situation ◦ if reject would give lands to Empire, if accept would have enormous power- either criticized • England pressed William into diplomatic action ◦ Initial reaction of William and Heinsius (Grand Pensionary)- encouraged Leopold to invade Italian possession of Spanish monarchy to force France concessions from Philip ofAnjou • If it weren't for a series of blunders Louis wouldn't have had war ◦ sent French ambassadors/ army to Spanish Netherlands - Dutch hastily retreated ◦ Philip ofAnjou always accompanied by French advisers ◦ Commercial privileges-Philip favoured French enterprises and giving Spanish goods • 1701-Louis breached part of the Peace of Ryswick recognition of William III as legitimate king ◦ Sept. 16 1701 Louis recognized James III as king of Britain and Ireland ▪ James II had lived in exile in France ◦ seemed to be a pattern- threat-> aggression-> domination • 1701 Sept 7 GrandAlliance formed by Britain,Austria, and Dutch ◦ promising to challenge Spain at person of Philip and pledge to fight France until “a just and reasonable satisfaction for theArchduke Charles especially for the Italian territories The War of Spanish Succession, Part II October 10 • Untimely death of William III Spring 1702 ◦ hope of Louis XIV and advisers that war might be avoided, expected alliance to fall apart • England's 1696 succession ◦ smooth succession from Death of William III to QueenAnne ▪ backed by moderate conservatives and Godolphin (leading English politician) ◦ Duke of Marlborough- made captain general/ commander of British Expeditionary force ▪ House of Commons promised they would pursue France with utmost vigour ◦ direct threat opposed to Britain by Louis' recognition of James III “Stuart Pretender” • Dutch- more promising to Louis XIV -committed to GrandAlliance -feared Bourbon in Spain
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