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War of Austrian Succession, Diplomatic Revolution

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Denis Smyth

3) War ofAustrian Succession, Diplomatic Revolution The Theory and Practice of the Balance of Power, 1715-1740 October 17 • 1 time to use term balance of power in the treaty of Utrecht ◦ balance of power should ensure collective security but also individual state survival • close partnership between Britain and France - nurse into existence fledgling balance of power ◦ France- dynastic problem ▪ Louis died September 1715- only legitimate descendent- 5 year old Louis XV ▪ looked like French succession was up for grabs ▪ Duc d'Orleans- cousin of Louis XIV- should get back of Britain for possible succession ◦ Britain- one weak point in Hanover (George I elector of Hanover British monarch) • possibly vulnerable from pressure from Russia and Prussia ▪ France offered its military machine for dealing with Russia • Barrier Treaty betweenAustria and Dutch - November 1715- provided for Dutch garrisons • 1730s- War ofAustrian succession from war of Polish succession ◦ Augustus II died- Augustus III obvious candidate-backed byAustria, Russia, and France ▪ Louis XV married to Polish princess-backed candidate father in law Leszczynski ◦ France to prove that they were back on track - Chief minister Fluery- decided to make war ◦ 10 Oct 1733-France declared war onAustria- attackedAustrian Italy, Rhine, Phillipsburg ▪ scale of victory- put to shadow Louis XIV's successes but maintained balance of power • Fleury (moderate) -to Dutch-French won't enterAustrian Netherlands- Dutch went aside ◦ Robert Walpole (British PM)- kept British monarchy stable- not many British casualties • formalAnglo-French alliance- 28 November 1716 ◦ pledged to recognize each respective succession, and guarantee and defend all possessions ◦ one dysfunction part - Spain andAustria- Spain wanted Sicily, Naples, Milan etc. • QuadrupleAllianceAugust 1718- deal amongst Britain, France, Dutch, andAustria ◦ hoped Spain agree- Dutch backed out when Spain wouldn't grant commercial concessions ◦ idea to give some Italian successions to son of Philip V-Austrians didn't like it ◦ Spain still didn't sign- British and French landed at sea 11August 1718 ▪ British fleet under Byng destroyed Spanish at Cape Passaro, invaded Basque provinces ◦ 1720 Jan- Spain eventually acceded to QuadrupleAlliance ◦ Philip V to get Savoy, Parma due to wife Elizabeth Farnese's claims • Austrian Succession Question - Charles VI (Austrian) only had 1 legitimate succession-female ◦ before death of Charles, Kaunitz, the greatAustrian minister, got proposal to leaders of Europe to allow female succession - Pragmatic succession The Operation of the Balance of Power: The war ofAustrian Succession, 1740-1748 October 22 • little that could upset the succession but ultimate test- ability to absorb new great powers • October 1740- Death of Archduke Charles ◦ Prussia- challenger power emerged ▪ medium size German statecraft didn't seem to possess necessary requirements ▪ lacked physical concentration- population not large and poor, no heartland ▪ 1 asset- May 1740- Accession of Frederick II • acknowledged father's establishment of a “formidable and murderous” army • efficient mobilization because of heavy taxation of rural population ◦ managed to fire muskets 3 times faster than another state's army • “Prussia is not a country which has an army, it's an army which has a country” ◦ December 1740- invaded and occupiedAustrian province of Silesia by surprise ▪ offered monetary compensation to Maria Theresa and offered to assist consolidate other territories with Prussian army and promised promote husband for Holy Roman Emperor • but Pragmatic Succession only viable if territory isn't partitioned ◦ April 1741 at Mollwitz- 1 clash betweenAustria and Prussia ▪ even with victories, Prussia didn't attempt to expand ◦ June 1741- reluctant defensive ally with France due toAustrian resistance at negotiations ◦ October 1741- short armistice betweenAustria and Prussia ◦ July 1742- Treaty of Breslau- Austria gave most of Silesia to Prussia ▪ doubled population - demographically, geographically, militarily, and financially ◦ 1744-45 reentered conflict withAustria ▪ 2 Silesian War- Frederick lured into battleground thought hold on Silesia was insecure because of Saxon allies ofAustria- seized Bohemia and Prague • MainAustrian ally- Britain persuadedAustria to make peace with Prussia ◦ 25 December 1745- Peace of Dresden- Silesia ceded once and for all to Prussia • demonstration of balance of power in the 18 ce.h ◦ One trouble maker send shockwaves to others- other states join war to pursue own aims • Louis XV increasingly irritated by moderation of moderate Fleury ◦ Belle-Isle (French gene
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