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Topic 14 WWI Topic 14 WWI

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University of Toronto St. George
Vasilis Dimitriadis

Topic Thirteen World War One  Background and Origins of WWI --Austria, after annexed Bosnia, land locked Serbia; -- Serbian nationalists decided to liberate the Slavic people, forming “Black Hand” – assassinations; --Archduke Ferdinand paid a state visit to Bosnia (June 1914); -- Ferdinand was pro-Slavic and was willing to offer concessions to the Slavic people; -- The Blank Hand, wanting to arouse international attention, assassinatedArchduke Ferdinand; --Austria approached Germany, wanting to militarily oppress Serbia for revenge; -- Blank Cheque (German-Austria): no matter whatAustria will do, Germany will fully support it; -- Germany did not have war in mind; merely want to humiliate Serbia & Patron Russia; -- Blank Cheque (Russia-Serbia): Russia asked Serbia to fulfill all demands by Austria, but will support it no matter what; -- Blank Cheque (France-Russia): 1914 France gave Russia full support; --Austria demanded Serbia: -- Cease propaganda & anti-Austrian publication; --All assassins be penalized; -- …. --Aresearch in the Serbian state archive to see if the state was involved; -- Serbia refused the last demand; violating sovereignty rights; wanting a diplomatic solution; --Austria issued an ultimatum 1914; didn’t want a diplomatic solution; didn’t want Serbia to exist as a state; -- Austria declared war against Serbia July 1914; -- Still,Austria did not want a World War, but only a regional conflict; -- Russia mobilized, supporting Serbia, also revenging for humiliation in 1908 Bosnia Crisis; st -- Germany was alarmed; Germany mobilized, too; Germany declared war on RussiaAugust 1 1914; -- Germany’s main army was concentrated along the French border; France was alarmed; -- France mobilized; Germany declared war on FranceAugust 2 , 1914; -- Britain declared war on GermanyAugust 4 1914; -- Finally, Austria declared war on Russia; -- World War I began.  1914-1917 Stalemate  United States and World War I -- Italy joined the Allied Power and the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Power; but overall balance is unchanged; -- Thus both sides look to US. -- Wilson was elected for promise of no-war; US did not want to be involved; -- However US sympathy and business interest lied with theAllied Powers; -- US entered the war in 1917, not fully on their will but caused by Germany’s behavior: -- By 1916 Germany too exhausted to defeat either Russia or western powers; -- 1915 Germany declared unrestricted submarine warfare; U-boat; sank Lusitania; infuriated US; -- Germany went back to restricted submarine warfare in the feat that US might go into war; -- Germany’s rationale: -- If unrestricted warfare: US was not a strong military/political power; US was too far; took a long time to mobilize; (estimated a year) Could defeat Britain and France before US came to aid; -- If stay restricted: ineffective, and Germany would have to sue for peace in 6 month; -- Germany thus went back to unrestricted submarine warfare again; -- US entered the war in 1917: -- Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare sank 4 more US ships; -- Telegram intercept that Germany encourage Mexico to enter war with US and promised territory;  Russia in WWI -- Russia, before US entering the war, had run out of everything; -- Tsar Nicolas decided to command by himself; -- Domestic unrest: -- P
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