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HIS103 19. The Crimean War and Peace PART II

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University of Toronto St. George
Denis Smyth

The Crimean War and Peace Jan 16, 2013 Key Words Notes  The French point of view,  The turning point of the Crimean war was the fall of the Russian naval the main motive for going to base in the city fortress of Sebastopol in September 1855. It essentially war was to break up the cleared the way for peace. At least in the view of French policy makers. quadruple alliance. This had  From the French point of view, their main motive for going to war was to been fulfilled months before break up the Quadruple alliance. It wanted to shake up the relationships the Crimean war. between the states of Quadruple Alliance. This was French National interest.  In December 1854 Austria  That result being achieved as early as December 1845, few months into joined the Western Powers in the war, when the Austrians had returned to the role of peacemakers and order to make them come to proposed the deal. Congress held in Vienna in spring of 1855 in Vienna in the Congress held in Vienna in part to get the Western powers to attend the congress, Austria had spring of 1855. formally joined their alliance in December 1854. They hadn’t actually gone to war. They had simply joined the western alliance, assuming the war was about to end so that they could afford that cheap gesture towards the west.  French policy makers were not satisfied. Napoleon III wasn’t satisfied with the relationship between Austria and Russia. One French diplomat wrote home to Paris, “you have mortally wounded the Holy Alliance and given it a first class funeral”  The breach between Austria and Russia had come once before. When  During early 1854 the Quadruple Alliance was Austria had ordered Russia to evacuate the Danubian principalities. This was regarded, by the Russian as a act of rudeness and ingratitude already dismembered and  So as early as the first months of the war in 1854 February, it could be there was an evident wedge argued that there was a breach between Austria and Russia. And between Russia and Austria. therefore, that early on Napoleon III had already achieved his goal of breaking up the Quadruple alliance and driving a wedge between Austria and Russia. So why would the French battle on for months?  Napoleon III required positive PR in front of his people. He wanted to sell and market the war effort to his own people. He knew that unless he had achieved clear-cut victory in the field of battle, he couldn’t be seen making peace. He had to justify the expenditure of French people, blood,  France wanted a clear-cut and national treasure.  That clear-cut victory came with the fall of Sebastopol in September victory before it could start 1855. Now he could afford to make peace in front of his own people. Now peace negotiations. he could also offer moderate terms to the Russian because he wanted them as a partner rather then a foe in international system. In the  British Prime Minister Crimean system. Palmerston wanted more territorial concessions from  The British however, had much more wider strategic burden. In early October 1855, British Prime Minister Palmerston wrote to his foreign Russia. secretary, Lord Clarendon that France and Britain should fight on so that “they could lastly diminish Russia’s means of aggression in Europe”  They wanted territorial reduction for Russia of Europe-around the Baltic, Black Sea and such. Aberdeen said that that was enough to drive them into another 30-year war. Palmerston wanted so much territory to be stripped from Russia as to make any peace with Russia a far distant prospect.  Palmerston’s position would be outflanked by the French. It wasn’t until there was considerable war wearing in France that peace prospect was popular inside French and with the French people.  Walewski:  The new French foreign minister, Walewski, now that the interest of the - French foreign minister. peace really suited the French state and its people. s - Descendent of Napoleon.  Napoleon III for a lot of reason had to lend an ear to Walewski. And anyway, he had gotten what he had wanted. He had broken up the quadruple alliance as the essential molder of great European decisions. So a joint peace initiative was sponsored by Austria to end the fighting.  The document they produced in their joined drafting and consultation  Buol-Bourqueney was Buol-Bourqueney Agreement: Buol was the Austrian minister and Agreement: th Bourqueney was the French ambassador to Austria. The document was - November 14 1855 jointly agreed by the two powers on the 14 November 1855. It had 4 - It was jointly agreed upon main points: between Austria and the - 2 about free navigation on the Danube and the restoration of the French ambassador to the equality of rights for the Christians in the Ottoman Empire. Austrians - 2 constituted the real core of the peace deal and promised to - Provisions: jeopardize any peace settlement unless they could achieve  1 free navigation on acceptance from all the powers concerned. the Danube  One of these were the fate of the Danubian principalities. They should  1 about the restoration be restored to the overall rule of the Ottoman empire with considerable of equality of rights for auto many. the Christians in  There was a concern about the mouth of the Danube being the key area Ottoman Empire. and the presence of Russia in Arabia, threatening not only the Ottoman  One was about the fate hold on Danubian principalities, but also the mouth of the river Danube. of the Danubian Where it flowed into the Black sea. Principalities and that  The British demand was for a massive cession of territory from the they be restored to the Russians. The initial provision in Buol-Bourqueney agreement was that Ottoman Empire Russia would see the mouth of the Danube, but only part of Bessarabia.  De-militarization from That was one issue that might potentially divide the conference. the Russian army of  The second was about he Black sea. The basic demand in the Buol- the Black Sea. Bourqueney agreement was that the Black Sea be de-militarized. That - British argument against 2
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