The Crimean War and Peace
Jan 16, 2013
Key Words Notes
The French point of view, The turning point of the Crimean war was the fall of the Russian naval
the main motive for going to base in the city fortress of Sebastopol in September 1855. It essentially
war was to break up the cleared the way for peace. At least in the view of French policy makers.
quadruple alliance. This had From the French point of view, their main motive for going to war was to
been fulfilled months before break up the Quadruple alliance. It wanted to shake up the relationships
the Crimean war. between the states of Quadruple Alliance. This was French National
In December 1854 Austria That result being achieved as early as December 1845, few months into
joined the Western Powers in the war, when the Austrians had returned to the role of peacemakers and
order to make them come to
proposed the deal. Congress held in Vienna in spring of 1855 in Vienna in
the Congress held in Vienna in part to get the Western powers to attend the congress, Austria had
spring of 1855. formally joined their alliance in December 1854. They hadn’t actually
gone to war. They had simply joined the western alliance, assuming the
war was about to end so that they could afford that cheap gesture
towards the west.
French policy makers were not satisfied. Napoleon III wasn’t satisfied
with the relationship between Austria and Russia. One French diplomat
wrote home to Paris, “you have mortally wounded the Holy Alliance and
given it a first class funeral”
The breach between Austria and Russia had come once before. When
During early 1854 the
Quadruple Alliance was Austria had ordered Russia to evacuate the Danubian principalities. This
was regarded, by the Russian as a act of rudeness and ingratitude
already dismembered and So as early as the first months of the war in 1854 February, it could be
there was an evident wedge argued that there was a breach between Austria and Russia. And
between Russia and Austria. therefore, that early on Napoleon III had already achieved his goal of
breaking up the Quadruple alliance and driving a wedge between Austria
and Russia. So why would the French battle on for months?
Napoleon III required positive PR in front of his people. He wanted to sell
and market the war effort to his own people. He knew that unless he had
achieved clear-cut victory in the field of battle, he couldn’t be seen
making peace. He had to justify the expenditure of French people, blood,
France wanted a clear-cut and national treasure.
That clear-cut victory came with the fall of Sebastopol in September
victory before it could start 1855. Now he could afford to make peace in front of his own people. Now
peace negotiations. he could also offer moderate terms to the Russian because he wanted
them as a partner rather then a foe in international system. In the
British Prime Minister Crimean system.
Palmerston wanted more
territorial concessions from The British however, had much more wider strategic burden. In early
October 1855, British Prime Minister Palmerston wrote to his foreign
Russia. secretary, Lord Clarendon that France and Britain should fight on so that
“they could lastly diminish Russia’s means of aggression in Europe”
They wanted territorial reduction for Russia of Europe-around the Baltic,
Black Sea and such. Aberdeen said that that was enough to drive them
into another 30-year war. Palmerston wanted so much territory to be
stripped from Russia as to make any peace with Russia a far distant
Palmerston’s position would be outflanked by the French. It wasn’t until
there was considerable war wearing in France that peace prospect was
popular inside French and with the French people. Walewski: The new French foreign minister, Walewski, now that the interest of the
- French foreign minister. peace really suited the French state and its people. s
- Descendent of Napoleon.
Napoleon III for a lot of reason had to lend an ear to Walewski. And
anyway, he had gotten what he had wanted. He had broken up the
quadruple alliance as the essential molder of great European decisions.
So a joint peace initiative was sponsored by Austria to end the fighting.
The document they produced in their joined drafting and consultation
Buol-Bourqueney was Buol-Bourqueney Agreement: Buol was the Austrian minister and
Agreement: th Bourqueney was the French ambassador to Austria. The document was
- November 14 1855 jointly agreed by the two powers on the 14 November 1855. It had 4
- It was jointly agreed upon main points:
between Austria and the - 2 about free navigation on the Danube and the restoration of the
French ambassador to the equality of rights for the Christians in the Ottoman Empire.
- 2 constituted the real core of the peace deal and promised to
- Provisions: jeopardize any peace settlement unless they could achieve
1 free navigation on acceptance from all the powers concerned.
the Danube One of these were the fate of the Danubian principalities. They should
1 about the restoration be restored to the overall rule of the Ottoman empire with considerable
of equality of rights for auto many.
the Christians in
There was a concern about the mouth of the Danube being the key area
Ottoman Empire. and the presence of Russia in Arabia, threatening not only the Ottoman
One was about the fate hold on Danubian principalities, but also the mouth of the river Danube.
of the Danubian Where it flowed into the Black sea.
Principalities and that The British demand was for a massive cession of territory from the
they be restored to the Russians. The initial provision in Buol-Bourqueney agreement was that
Russia would see the mouth of the Danube, but only part of Bessarabia.
De-militarization from That was one issue that might potentially divide the conference.
the Russian army of The second was about he Black sea. The basic demand in the Buol-
the Black Sea. Bourqueney agreement was that the Black Sea be de-militarized. That
- British argument against 2