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HIS103 24. Bismarck and the states system 1880-1890 PART II

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Department
History
Course
HIS103Y1
Professor
Denis Smyth
Semester
Fall

Description
8. Bismarck and the states system 1880-1890 Jan 30, 2013 Key Words Notes  Bismarck would demonstrate his overriding in the decade to come. In  There was a nessecity of the primacy of the alliance system of 1880’s. making sure that Austria-Hungary  That was the nesesaacity of maintaining the existence of Austria- still exitsed. This was because if it Hungry as a condition of defending his own solution to the German didn’t then the german state question. Austria-Hungary’s continual survival was a necessary would have to inclide the Slavic condition of Prussia’s continuing dominance of (..?) a smaller German population. That would lead to an Empire not including the Austrian Germans, and also the Slavic ehtinic clash. Naturally, Slavic population mixed up with the German population of the Austrian people also felt a sense of bleining Empire. to the Russians. This clash,  It was that greater German the Grossdeutsch that Bismarck feared. Bismarck thought could lead to an That was unlikely to be control-able by the Prussian ruling class, war. - Because of its complicated cultural composition - Its inevitable Slavic minority.  Bismarck wanted to avoid  No matter how you drew the boundary, these were more Grossdeutsch-Greater German. It civilized times. Nobody thought of forcible ethnic cleansing, would redraw the boundry line deporting of people and population. contain the Austrian Germans and  So Bismarck though no matter how you drew the boundaries of t chunck of Slavic foreces. a greater German Empire, including the Germans of the Hapsburg Empire, you’d also have to include a sizeable Slavic population.  It regarded itself as an alienated minority; it looked to Russia as its champion. In other words there would be standing reasons for conflict between greater Germany and the Russian empire over the Slavic subjects.  That was the confrontation that Bismarck feared. He knew it would destroy both powers and certainly the Prussian ruling class would not  Therefore, Bismarck thought it like an outbreak of such a war. And they didn’t between 1941-1945. was fundamental that Austria- Perhaps the primary contribution of Adolf Hitler about the triumph Hungary be maintained. Bismarck towards his cause. still hoped to bring Russia into the  The commitment to maintaining Austria-Hungary therefore was tri-part deal. The Russians thought that if they did not join soon than fundamental. Still Bismarck hoped to Bring Russia on board in a Tripod deal. Especially with the failure of the Austrian action of they would be excluded from bringing Britain into Bloc in the Russians place. Germany’s good favors.  Sure enough with his ascendant part in the Austro-German relationship, and with the Russians now worried that they might be  The Three Emperors Alliance: excluded from Germany’s good offices and favors Bismarck seemed to - June 18 1881 th - Signed by Austria, Germany pull of the impossible. On June 18 1881 there was sign in Berlin the so called (..?) The Three Emperor Alliance: and Russia - Signed by Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. - First article: benevolent - First article of that treaty between those three powers was fairly neutrality bland. It simply committed the other powers to benevolent - Second article: Balkan neutrality should one of them be attacked by a fourth power. question. Russia and Austria promise to take into account - The second article contained what Bismarck was concerned with.  He knew that the Balkan Question, the Eastern Question, and their respective interest in the inheritance question about the land owned the Turks in Europe Balkan Peninsula. was the crucial issue permanently setting Austria and Russia against one another.  The whole point contained in the question, which resulted in a quarrel over the Ottoman inheritance in southeastern Europe.  The whole point of this was to keep that crisis within tolerable bounds so that Germany wasn’t dragged in. - s  Bismarck famously said, “The Balkans are not worth a bone of (one German soldier).” But he knew that if war broke out in Europe because  The Three Emperors Alliance is of a Balkan crisis, and it did of course, in August 1914, then millions tested when there was a revolt in would die. So he was aware of how profound the question contained in Eastern Rumelia. the crisis were. The whole point of the Three Emperor Alliance was to - Rumelia had been part of keep it in bound. So article 2, by the signiary powers, above all Austria Bulgaria but was added back to and Russia promised to take account of their respective interest in the the Ottoman Empire with the Balkan peninsula, was the real object of the treaty. To get the two rival Treaty of San Stefano. powers in the region on board with permanent obligation to consult - The citizens were not happy. one another in time of International crisis. The obvious solution was to  There was a provision made to deal the text of the treaty with the most help them rejoin Bulgaria. likely form of the surgence of the Balkan problem or eastern question might assume. That was the revolt in Eastern Rumelia. That part of Bulgaria, which had been split from it in the Treaty of San Stefano and return to Ottoman rule. The powers were well informed enough to realize the citizens of Eastern Rumelia were seething at the fact that they were sundered once more from their Bulgarian Brothers and sisters. the obvious form that such a reemerge might take place was removal of Eastern Rumelia to rejoin Bulgaria.  The powers said that they would be agreeable to such a development as long as it happened under their agreement. They sought to resole this question in advance.  So Bismarck seemed to escape his latent choice of Austria over Russia. With negations he got Russia on board and seemed to contain and confined the Balkan question. However, he remained pessimistic by the prospect of postponing great power conflict in the Balkans forever.  Bismarck made a series of deals He remained with his priority in ensuring that Austria-Hungary, which which highlighted his concerned for maintaining Austria he thought would be bound to lose in a direct Austro-Russian contest, he remained profoundly committed to doing what he could to ensure - Triple Alliance Treaty that it helps its position as long as possible-Only for Germany’s sake.  May 20 1882  What he proceeded to do was engage in some other diplomatic deals  Launched by Italian Prime which rather Illumined his real concern for maintaining Austria Minister Depretis interest even at the sake of potentially alienating the Russians.  He got criticism when the th - The first such agreement came in the Triple Alliance on May 20 French managed to steal 1882. their colonization in North  This was initially an initiative launched by Italy. Africa  The Italian Prime Minister Depretis came into considerable  The French outflanked the domestic criticism and the French managed to steal a march on Italian in Tunis and the the Italian colonization of North Africa and establish their Italian public wasn’t happy. presence.  So Depretis approacged,  One of the central Mediterranean South African countries, Bismarck with an offer of which Italy, the smallest of the great powers, aspired to an alliance dominant the colonized Libya, and much of the southern  Bismarck was reluctant but Mediterranean shore in South Africa. eventually he realized that this alliance might be  So Depretis was outflanked by the French in Tunis where he came under considerable domestic criticism. important in terms of  So in an attempt to fix his position with the French, he Austria’s existence. approached Bismarck with an offer of Alliance. Initially the  Logic behind the German chancellor was skeptical of the support Italy could Bismarck’s actions: lend, for example in a future war with France. But the more he a. Italy and Austria were enemies thought about Deprietis proposal the more he saw the value in it. Especially from the point of view of propping up Austria’s b. In a war Italy would existence. chose France over  Italy and Austria were recent enemies and thereby align itself Germany in war. with France in any war between France and Germany and c. It also relieved the Germany was supported by Austria. southern pressure of  So it relieved the southern flank pressure from Italy upon Italy on Austria. Austria to secure Austria’s southern frontier, Bismarck was  The terms included that if a prepared to conclude a tri-part alliance. fourth power were to  By the terms of that alliance, Austria and Germany, in effect attack Austria, Germany or guaranteed each other in any future war with a fourth power. Italy ten the other would  The real bargain from Bismarck’s point of view was that Italy help. wouldn’t join France in an attack against Germany when it  The whole point was to would need support, and support Germany in future war with ensure that any power did the French and more importantly it wouldn’t attack Austria in not attack Austria. the case of a Russian war with the Austrians. - Austro-German Treaty:  The whole point of the triple alliance. An extra obligation from  October 30 1883 Bismarck’s point of view, was not to get Italian military power  Made with Romania. on Germany’s side, rather ensure that it wasn’t against Austria  Bismarck’s logic: in a future European war. a. The only reason why - Austro-German Treaty of October 30 , 1883 with Romania. Bismarck wanted to  Romania was a country sandwiched between Bulgaria and guarantee the existence Russia of Romania was  The only point of the central powers, as they came to be known because it acted as a in the first world war, Germany, Austria and Hungry, buffer state between it guaranteed the existence of Romania as a buffer state between and Austria Russia and Bulgaria pushing back the direct influence on Russia b. To shore up Austria in Bulgaria and thereby a buffer state between Russia and Austria. Southeast Europe.  The whole point of the Romanian treaty was to shore up  Austria in southeast Europe.  It could be argued that the treaty with Romania was in indirect conflict with Bismarck’s obligations to Russia under the terms of the Three Emperors league.  But the whole point of it was to deal with what was an essential problem built into the system that could not be solved by any diplomatic instrument. That was the problem articulated by Bismarck in conversations with his old friend, Saburov in 1880. He said, “all politics reduces itself to his formula. To try to be one of three, as the world is government by the unstable equilibrium of five great powers”  When you have five dominant powers, comprising the international order the trick was to be in the majority.  The only bloc feasible for Bismarck was the Austro-Russian German.  France would never forgive for the loss of Alsace Lorraine. So  Treaty of Frankfurt Bismarck to some extent himself, by permanently alienating France by Treaty of Frankfurt had botched himself.  Yet the only possible way was for the three to add to Germany, Austria and Russia. The problem was that they were permanent enemies because of the rivalry between and amongst over the inheritance of southeaster Europe.  That is one why on one hand he was committed to Austria for the reasons we have, he could not afford to alienate Russia too easily. It might look elsewhere and suddenly Ge
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