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University of Toronto St. George
Vasilis Dimitriadis

Napoleon left Egypt and agreed to commit a coup d’etat. Transformed French political life, named himself First Counsel, never to give power away 1799 = Napoleonic Wars – single handed transform international relations…napoleonic policy not French policy Russians and British … only Austria and Britain as the great powers vs France Napoleon tackled Austria, via military affairs what he does best Created new army – army of reserves, allowed French to target the HRE, northern Italy and …….from Switzerland. Finance campaign – trillions of francs were loaned by dutch, Belgians, northern Italians and swiss – cause of defeat of coalition French targeted Germany, defeated, thereafter, entered northern Italy, French intercepted last remaining Germany Without an army Vienna had to sue for peace, peace was signed Feb 1801 peace of Lunavut…Austria accepts every single loss, Austria Netherlands = part of France, Rhine river, recognized all losses in northern Italy going back to the treaty in the previous war Napoleon penalized them even more, humiliating loss and almost end of Austria. Almost a year, negotiated March 1801-02 British and French signs treaty Britain has no allies, no land army, so agrees to recognize Belgium part of France, Rhineland and northern Italy (Sicilpine) = France, ..= huge recognition British were supposed to give up Malta and then Napoleon was supposed to get out of Dutch 1792-1802…after that peace in Europe France and Britain could not accept major changes, even though signs treaty and Britain can’t allow napoleon’s attitude Trade in France, such high tariffs on British goods, lost on commercial goods French never pulled out from Batavian Republic…napoleon says you did not evacuate malta, Britain says had u evacuated dutch we would have don’t so Report coming from France that Napoleon sends secret missions back to Egypt By what means could the French set up the Indians vs British Napoleon didn’t think Britain could read french reports Britain knew Napoleon would never settle unless he ruled rd Begins 3 anti-napoleonic coalition Declaring himself an emperor….Napoleon did this without Pope’s decision, singlehandedly British must offer serious money Prussia – sees military changes, a risk = going to battle vs napoleon How long would it last and what would it cost Also, napoleon proposes neutrality to Prussia and the reward of Hanover. From HRE into Prussia…which would have made them greater than Austria and most important in Germany…Hanover into Prussia A and R didn’t join coalition, but later did due to Napoleon Napoleon invades the Balkand islands…potentially limiting Russia so R joins Austria joins late summer 1805, despite the peace treaty, annexed entire north Italy making it French property instead of a puppet state Ambition means things can never be settled diplomatically Napoleon targets British – good rational …you need a navy to get to the british Army of England – Best of the French army ready to invade Britain British navy destroys in battle of Trafalgar Although he had a good plan, napoleon decided to turn against continental great powers of Russia and Austria..wipe out Austrian army Moved the grand armee, catching Austrians by surprised and positioned it, no less than 33k army of soldiers…..= boost for France Austrians and Russia puts aside all personal problems and defeats napoleon These 2 states operates in 2 different calendars… prohibited…austria = catholic…..russia = protestant Gregorian 10 days difference Napoleon had more soldiers
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