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Winter Term 1st Lecture.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Vasilis Dimitriadis

Lecture 1 The Congress of Vienna and the Congress System -After Napoleon was defeated (battle of waterloo 1815), immense shock occured (psychological impact & material devastation & incredible loss of life) because of ease of Napoleons destruction of international state system, and re-creation of another system. The devastation (1792-1815) - more bloody battles than in three previous centuries combined, nobody took it easily; these battles affected every statesman. Napoleon/France was the one individual/state managed to overthrow balance of power. Conaquently, congress sought to create new state system in Europe, so that no one would ever plunge system into such catastrophic war. Creating new state system was a tough task to approach. Treaty of Utrecht & Treaty of Westphalia served the purpose of managing the existing. The experience and the knowledge that resulted from Napoleon's wars (destruction of balance of power) was now available for other states. French revolution & Napoleon unleashed number of ideas: Nationalism & Liberalism. Quadruple Alliance - ideological Christian/conservative alliance that sought to create ideological conservative front -during last year of war, 1814, allies sure of themselves that France would be defeated started bickering of what to do with France after war (Prussia [after humiliation wanted to dismember France], Russia [keep France intact, put inside man, France turn into Russian satellite], England [British foreign minister {Castlereagh} , called meeting, no separate peace/ alliances with France, fight till France was defeated]; Austria). Quadruple Alliance bonded for 20 years after Napoleon was defeated, 150 000 soldiers each so France would be overwhelmed. Every year there would be a meeting to discuss political development of Europe. Quadruple alliance, ideological approach: conservative monarchical system, no chance that revolution could take place (Alexander pointed out France’s weakness was monarchy); Britain didn’t like it because it wasn’t about international relations, it was about ideologies - Britain didn’t sign. Austria and Prussia agreed and signed with Russia. What to do with Napoleon/France? - Re-establish bourbon monarchy in France (brought back Louis XVIII – not a Napoleon/revolutionary). Only way to take back place in international system was to allow French to participate at congress of Vienna as 5th great power. Results: No territorial losses (allowed to re-take some land they conquered) Nobody thought of revenge -A humiliated France would have thought only of revenge and plunged Europe even further into catastrophe -Russians, Prussians, British & Austrians had more problems. Alexander demanded higher reward: to take over all of Poland, had British/Austrians allowed Russia to take over, would have upset balance of power (1813-1814) . When Alexander broached the idea of Poland being annexed to Russia, Metternich & Castlereagh opposed -No way Russia could go to war against all 3 states, and Russia annexed only 60% of Polish states -Netherlands, low countries, Rhineland, northern Italy: frances hunting grounds William VIII received Nice & Savoy. Venetia & Lombardy received by Austria. Lecture 3 - The Congress of Vienna and the challenges associated with it. - To ensure that France would never become the arbitrator of Europe, the quadruple alliance combined together. - The Holy Alliance was created –.. however, there were some problems amongst the alliance. - Russia was still challenged by the idea that Poland would not be given to them. - The most important great power(s) – would not allow Russia to occur to that so that the problem of arbitration would not occur. - 1820-1830: 5 Revolutions challenged the Congress, the power balance. - The British wished to maintain France’s power – Russia and Austria wanted to get involved within the politics of all the member states. The system managed to overcome all the challenges and maintain the territorial disposition. - Within 2 decades of the 1830s – the entire system was in shambles. - The whole system simply unraveled. - Metternich focused that he would be upholding a liberal structure. - 1848: Sweeping from one end of the continent to the others, the British and the Russians. - Britain escaped the upheaval, along with Russia (due to its absolutism). - First revolution in Southern Italy followed by Paris. - The French overthrew Louis-Philippe. - The Revolution from Paris spread all over central Europe- from Berlin, Prague and Budapest. - 1849- Hungary managed to defeat the Austrians and declared full independence. From the Habsburg empire. - More importantly would have challenged a lot of the neighbors of the Habsburg Empire. - By the spring of 1849- Holy Alliance was revoked. - Competitors to the claim of Austria being part of the Russian state. - There would be a major void created should the Hungarian revolutionary army Polish soldiers continue fighting. - It would have been only a matter of time should the Hungarians come to challenge the Russians. - August 1849: 2000 Russian troops crossed into Hungary and defeated them in a short campaign. - 1849-1850: Accepted the offer. Came to be seen as the leader of small Germany. - November 1850: Nicholas wanted to announce the union. - This caught Europe’s attention – particularly London – Russia replaced France as the arbitrator of Europe. - This change of Russia lead to the collapse of the European Union- Britain feared that Russia gained the upper hand. - Austria became the follower of Russia. - British looked at the Russians with a great deal of apprehension and waited for an opportunity to restore Russia back to their original place. - Russia must be defeated diplomatically as well as militarily. - Paris was the center of revolutions within Europe – the republic itself was overthrown and the coup d’état continued. The nephew of Napoleon wanted to destroy the French republic system. Wanted to regain the position lost by France in 1815, the leading diplomatic role for the French. - The limitations for France for the Congress: the quadruple alliance came in and threatened the French should they attempt to expand territory (Belgium) - After carrying out the coup d’état in 1852, he demanded the keys to the Holy Places within the Ottoman Empire. In 1852, were currently in Catherine of Russia’s hands. - The British were already concerned by the political power held by the French and the Ottoman Empire. - The Russians were long since aware of French intentions, to make sure that the other states and Prussia would not gain power. - 48-49: Russia had ‘taken control’ over Berlin and Vienna. - The French underscored the introduction of the first steam powered battleship with 95 guns. - The Turks immediately handed over the keys to the French. - Nicholas called in the British ambassador in 1853 and told him that Russia had no desire to dismantle and destroy the Ottoman Empire- however should it occur the two great powers should be able to work out a deal. - The British completely misunderstood and figured that the Russians were interested in the dismantling of the Ottoman Empire. - Summer of 1853; the Russians occupied two Turkish provinces. - Austria decided to find a diplomatic solution to this crisis: a compromise, neither French or Russian control.
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