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Kenneth Bartlett

Humanism – October 1 , 2012 st Key Words: -Ordinances of Justice -Cosimo de’ Medici (d. 1464) -Lorenzo de’Medici (d. 1492) -L-B Alberti (d. 1472) -L. Valla (d. 1457) -N. Machiavelli (d. 1527) -Petrarch (1304 – 74) -Leonardo Bruni (d. 1444) Italy: - Italy was different from the rest of Europe as long distance trade never really ceased because of urban sophistication, which meant cities could sustain power and influence - You have to have a money economy if you have something as sophisticated as the Roman Church in your city - Rome was an attraction for pilgrims - People wanted to be in Rome which is why it never lost that much power - This allowed for economic and urban life even during the darkest of the Dark Ages - Feudalism in Italy was shallow as the need for it wasn’t there; there were alternatives & the Italians were more flexible in reordering system of society - sovereignty took place in Italian peninsula - Italy begins to look different from rest of feudal Europe, which gave Italy advantages - When all of Europe decided it would export excess knights to the Crusades, Italy was the place in which they would disembark - Italy had skills in shipbuilding from long distance trade - These things allowed for vast amounts of wealth & independence because of that wealth - aka the Crusades provided cash for Italy - by 1200: towns and cities were growing, there was more wealth & sophistication, & the relation between wealth and banking developed - Every place in Europe was still dominated by the aristocracy of knights - In Italy, the knights/lords had manors AND headquarters within the cities - In Italy it wasn’t town vs. country like everywhere else, because towns and cities were too closely related - it was knights vs. old aristocratic families Florence: - made lots of money through trade and banking - this was unusual because it wasn’t close to sea so it wasn’t a seaport - grew rich and powerful because it made something everyone wanted: high quality dyed wool cloth - the cloths were expensive and trendy, which made Florence extremely wealthy - the surplus money generated by trade led to banking – lending money to others - Florentine banks became large and widely distributed, with branches in every major European city - the Pope began to shift all his economic activity to Florentine banks, which benefited from the privileges - Florence grew in sophistication - wool monopolized the economy - the violence between nobles and merchants (remember last note) became too much so the Pope stepped in & sent his nephew to make them make up - solution: heads of large mercantile groups in the cities (guilds made up of bankers, woolers, furriers) would take care of the economic situation of the city, giving the nobles more time to kill and such - the nobles like this idea - the merchants began to work collectively against their enemies the nobles - the 7 guildsmen, forming a committee, took over the government and city because they owned the money and the power - the merchants took advantage of the fact that the nobles couldn’t work together or decide on a leader - as part of the agreement the merchants had taken control over t
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