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HIS109Y1 (536)

Industrialization II.docx

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Anthony Cantor

Industrialization II I. Social changes II. Development of class consciousness III. Effects of industrialization on artisans IV. Industrial work & workers Social Changes of Industrialization -rural to urban lifestyles -higher birth rates -advances in nutrition, sanitation, hygiene -before mid-1800s, 1/5 children died before their first birthday, after 1850, that changed (allowing an abundant & youthful workforce for factory employers) -lower death rates -new technologies allowed a huge boom in the European population -larger farms didn’t have enough positions for people surviving during this boom -after 1850, the prospect of famine began to fade (more surplus of food) -system of large-scale farming meant that people could hire & fire more often, which drove many people into the cities -landowners argued this type of farming broke the old cycle & was more beneficial (for the first time, there’s always enough food, & to support a larger pop.) -increased workforce -fewer hands were needed to work the land, sometimes farmers were forced off their land from competition from larger farmers & enclosure -the change in how people worked was the most important social change of this period -new infrastructure -changes in work & working conditions Class Consciousness -“Class in itself” vs. “Class for itself” -industrialization produces new groupings based on new criteria (industrial middle class & working class) -middle class: not the nobility, but owns a lot of capital, invests in industrial production, employs a lot of workers -working class: all they have to sell is their labour, doing unskilled work -class as a form of identity that takes preced
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