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Lecture 16

Lecture 16 - Absolutism.doc

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Kenneth Bartlett

HIS109Y1- Lecture Sixteen Absolutism November 5/2012 A. du Plessis de Richelieu (1585-1642) Louis XIII (1610-43) Marie de Medicis La Rochelle Caston d 'Orleans Castelnaudry intendant lettres de cachet Absolutism - the decisions/wins of the prince has the force of the law - Richelieu turned the situation of the 30 years war and shaped it. He saved Protestant Germany from the HRE - When the French king was assassinated in 1610 by a monk, an 8 year old was left in charge of the throne leaving a power vacuum for the nobles - Richelieu sued France from the HRE - Henry's widow (marie) hated her son Louis XHI who inherited the throne; she lived only for pleasure - she was custodian for her 8 year old son which meant for years France was run by the Queen's favourites who were mostly Italian. - they managed everything which bothered Louis. When he turned 16, he ordered the death of the Queen's favourite - Louis decided to become King officially when he was 16. He needed someone to give him good advice - Hugenots in France? Influence by the pope - Louis hired Richelieu as his first minister. Richelieu was born into a good family as the 2nd son which meant he was educated rather than being taught to fight - Richelieu spoke to the Pope and lied about his age (23 not 21) to become a Bishop, and get a job in France - he improved the education of the clergy captured the attention of Louis - 1614: he called a state's General where Richelieu proved himself and the Queen Marie made him secretary of state - When she was banished, he was associated with them and was seen as a danger; exiled the Aignon - Queen escaped and tried to instigate war against Louis. Richelieu was then recalled to negotiate with the Queen, as long as he was made a Cardinal - he succeeded in convincing the Queen and was made Chief Minister in 1624 - Louis gave most of his responsibility to Richelieu. He decided to: 1) Control the Hugenots 2) Remove power from feudal nobility 3) Control Habsburgs from overtaking France - Protestant authority was diminished and they became a colony inside France - Richelieu fared them not because they were Protestant but because they could still divide France and could serve as a trojan horse for France's enemies - Richelieu put together an army and sieged the protestant city of La Rochelle - Once the Protestants surrendered, he didn't take away their rights but did the opposite; acknowledged the Pr
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