His109y1 February 10 th
Radicalism and Socialism
Francois( graccbus) Babeuf (1760)
William Godwin (1756 1836_)
Robert Owen (1859)
Henri de saint simon(d.1825)
Charles Fourier (d.1837)
Industrial revolution was huge, lets look at tradition of enlightenment, we got to look
back at Newton, he came up with a set of ideas that animated thinkers that were thinking
in different areas altogether he defiend the laws of the operation fo the universe
Two kind of laws one laws that govern law rules that in inmutable, absolute laws of
nature cant be changed
Then that means everything in that category can be changed, these things are
contingent, they suspend on circumstance and context, which means they can
make mistake, they can vary, be changed altered, repealed.
The desire of 18 century people is to get law of universe a guide and model for
positive law, enacted on eathh by human beings, can be more closer to perfect law
that blanace universe, 18 centry thinkers, most influence was Ruso, we already
talked about social contract but will talk about it again.
Russo wrote the discourse of origin of equality, he attacks john lockes stackment
the ownership and the exership of private property was a alinateable right of been
human. According to russo not just wrong it’s a perversion, whats been shown by
history to Russo the possession of private property was the unjust of all elgal
codes and restrictive reality, some ideas made others desperately poor and others
rich, laws were made to make sure those people who have property to see it
increased and protected at all cost in particular for people who had none
Property was the cause of inequality it self, and wasn’t a natural right, but in
natural world manifested form man and nature there was no private property took
and shared as acquired
Russo defined a set of attitudes that challenged the notion fo the ownership and
exercise of private property was natural and should be protected by law and
To this revolutionary idea he added concept of general will, role of concept of
humanity exercising legislative right on own rights and best interested was
appointed in clear review, to traditional view people wioth property should have a
greater role in society because they have a greater state in it, people with out
property should be excluded they’d take away property of others nothing to lose.
The group legislates against the gernal will simply because they simply have
property which is in contradiction to natural law.
Laws decreed and eneacted against natural law by nature invalid and unjust
contrary to general will oppressive and can enfact be appealed disobeyed and un done by force if necessary, any law that protect privare property by law should be
disobeyed undone and should reply with force.
The revolution broke out with France in 1789 didn’t address any of these things to
The declaration of rights of man and citizen in 1789 preamble to 1791
consstitution said specifically private property should be protected it’s a natural
Revolutions always over take the intentions of who started them, the call of
liberty and fraternity, and idea of equality, motivated peasant of country side to
attack manor houses of land ords burn documents represent there oppression burn
houses and land lords in them, private property of French church wasn’t protected
made as a surety, in 1793, the mob in paris and the most radical jacobins took
over the government, the term radicalism comes from the latern word radics
which means roots the roots of plant, radicalism, tis the reorganizing of society
from the roots up leaving nothing from the odl system behind no intrenched rights
Rospierre led a reign of terro to build a radical public regime basedo n terror force
and revolution it failed, 1795 the directory was in power the rights of property the
special priveledge of right to vote were put in place. The radical experiment of
French revolution continued.
The failed attempt at radical revolution was sustained that those that want to
continue those un naturally suppressed and defated by power of reactions and
The most influential and vocal of reovolutionary leaders that survived was
francois bebeuf, he was a professional revolutionary was a journalist became
disciple of russo in 1795 started preach of doctrine that society had to be
completely egalitarian, that equality had to be preposed by the group if it was
truly natural got ideas from interpretation of Russos discourse of inequality and
social contract, francois changed his name to graccois, graccbos or some shit.
Wanted to be known as revolutionary, he wrote a bbook a very influential all men
and women must enjoy exact equality and have the same stuff this should be
monitored and proposed by the group, wealth power and rights should be exactly
legal, he called this idea conspiracy of legals, got a lot of followers many ower
class revolutionaries, that invested very much in economic schemes of
revolutionary gov and lost everyhthing, some workers of paris tasted a bit of
power over period of rospierere didn’t want to give it up, was a revolution core of
people that were iwlling to take over state and oppose equality
French revolutionary gov has faield them simply because it faield it self.
Babeuf made a manifesto of equals was a curious call for a universal revolution,
you couldn’t inherit money fmor relation he asaid, gov should be led interesting
enough by the workers of the city of paris, should be led by the very paris mob
that are supported and blood trauma edge of revolutionaries of 1793, all people
commited they were zealous, directory was concerned of making legitimate order
and making stability and keeping political classes on side.
Babeuf followers found executed etc, England same sort of thigns were
happening, rather look to revolution to look at English radical thinkers look at different ideas that become so attractive they’d rather be chosen then opposed,
radical falling in England in particular, set of ideas attract adherence, English
radicals all disciples of enlightenment, saw selfs of rationalists, look for solution
of problems to allow a reasonal rational solution to be established that be fair just
and natural, the English crown gov let them alone, many well born, had property
not dangers, seen as English eccentrics, not a rthreat,
They got more popular people, authorities started to care, round em up, cause of
radicalism didn’t die with them wasn’t exported to Australia, the leader of English
radical movement had a powerful effect on English imagination, in part of
personal connection of ideas that are so familiary to an consonant with the ideas
of the romantic movement in so many ways,.
Say William Godwin was connected to romantic movement is saying beatles
ocnencted to romantic music.
Godwin took as his second companion the leader of women rights, her great book
of rights of women, women should have completely equality owith men in all
things, these two people had daughter who was mary godwin who was author of
frankenstien, companion and wife of perci besilli.
Godwin made William a good preacher, he was stopped by a radical revolutionary
republican atheist, these republican atheist loved a argument and so did Godwin, the
atheist convinced Godwin that he was right and he was wrong, Godwin embraced
republicanism and freedom, he came in fact to believe the root to salvation is not religion
and god, but education is reason, Godwin provided a link between utopians of 19 C. and th
radicalism. The idea of gazellatizing , preaching what you believe is true even if its in
paradox to contravention order.
Shelly tossed out Cambridge for atheist.
From reading russo godwin convinced we can make a heaven on earth the sense were
good, but were corrupted, government and society are corrupt by the very nature, and
they corrupt the people living under it, 1793, made a big book, a inquiry concerning
political justice and general virtue.
Godwin argues for such things that religion is a device to ensure obedience among the