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[22] Nationalism.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Kenneth Bartlett

February 2, 2011 Nationalism - “Most powerful religion of 19 c th - Irrational - people of same nationality with same customs should live together - Some nations have superiority over others --> can rule over others - Fr.. Rev = form we recognize today began to grow - Self-identification - Sense of national identification - in some ways it was positive --> Napoleon created so-called unified Italy - Growth of national self-determination: Poland, Italy - Liberal, constitutional, national gov’t - Congress of Vienna: national self-determination wasn’t discussed - People associated nationalism with all other “bad -isms” - Some nations that had achieved some national resurgence under French were suppressed (e.g. Poland, Italy - absorbed byAustrian, Prussian states) - Europeans felt nationalism was part of oppression (response to napoleonic wars) - No attempt to create new set of states based on national identification - Desire to go back to how things were - Revolt of Poles 1830: against russians, many poles died, russian oppression increased - 1848: things began to change b/c forces were @ work that were contrary to traditional regimes - Prussian gov’t wantee to increase power (greater than austria) --> identify with concept of “ger- mans” - German customs union (free trade zone) - connected territeoes so they could have more contact, while exclusing austia, speaking language they all understood - German confederation: free association of german-speaking territories with shared goal - Gave rise to g nationatilism and people increasingly began to think of themselves as GERMAN -- prussia was the uniting force - This force was dividing the austrian empire (collection of territories collected by hapsburg em- pire) - degree of national feeling (sophistication of social structure and culture) - Many nations enjoyed sophisticated past - e.g. Poles saved Europe from Turks - Found rule of Hapsburgs to be humiliating --> wanted measure of freedom to recahive what they had lost or had not yet discovered (potential as a nation) - Pressure from all sides of austrian empire for nationalism - Austrian beurocayc = efficient + benevolent (everyone treated the same way b/c everyones a subject of the emperor - b/c couldn’t trust landlord) - Divide and conquer: set landlords against peasants - Peasantry in austria = serfs, no rights, were treated the worst in europe except russia - Peasants = no national feeling - Land-owning onlbity= national feeling - Peasants were first hostile to nationalism b/c associated it with landowning class - Divide and conquer = worked well - Nationalism in europe => supranationalism (went to wider natioal groups) - Panslavism = uniting slavic people from russia to germany w/ same culture and language - Some slavs were orthodox and wriote w/ cyrillic alphabet; others wrer calhtolic w/ latin alpha- bet - Compared suffering/humiliation with christ’s suffering --> need to be redeemed - Bound to the earth -- slavs were on the way to heaven - Originally hostile to w. (german) ideals - One of the causes of WWI - Idea provided russians w/ great adavange - largest slavic state and only independent one - great power w/ slavs - Italians - hadn't known independence since roman empire - Italy was upset how they’d been trated duing congress of vienna --> given back to austria b/c italy was freared to have starong desires of nationalism - Memory = long + powerful of united italian peninsula (give rise to R.E.) - Terribly oppressed - bourbons, austrians - Groups arose to challenge thes - Carbonate = charcoal burners - They were the ones who talked about nationalism -- revolution - Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1877) - founded young italy - Italian unity and independence, republicanism - Idealistic ideas of nationalism -- accepted by italisn nationlists - Udermined position by republicanism (people were monarchiaran -- wanted existing states to control) - Nationalist movements joined liberalism --> brought revolutions of 1848 - So much pressure -- exploded - Spark = came from paris - Feb 1848 - louis phillipe was toppled --> gave people hope they could overthrow oppressive rulers - Louis Kossuth (1802-1894) - drew line b/w austria and hungary - Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859) - still prime minister who tried to engage in program against national oppression - Ferdinand I - very stupid - Revolution in austria and hungary was successful b/c ferdidnand agreed to everything the revo- lutionaries wanted as long as he could get more food - Revolts in italy
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