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Lecture 2

HIS242H1 Lecture 2: World War I

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

World War I Lecture 2: Causes of War Belle Epoque (End of 19th Century-1914) Golden era in the development of culture (art, music), politics, economy, leisure, and education Positive Developments: • FineArt: impressionism, symbolism was followed by surrealism, cubism, expressionism • Cultural: positive developments - mass culture, dramatic rise in literacy rates • Leisure: involved the working class - Paris set the tone for Europe through dance halls, performances (theatre, concerts, acrobats, etc) • Education: females were now able to get an education at a large scale Problematic Developments: • While there was a rise in wages, the majority of European workers were still poor and did not see tangible improvements in their lives (still better than mid-19th century but still not enough) • Rise in literacy rates allowed the manipulation of people through mass scale propaganda • Used to brainwash - exclusionary nationalism became a mass phenomenon • In“Young Europe”: no nation argued with each other • Beginning 20th Century: Nationalism came at the expense of someone else, always seeing problems in their neighbours - poisonous climate ▯1 Causes of WWI Causes Explanation Militarism SEA-Anglo-German Naval Race LAND - Military Plans 1906: Dreadnought took sea as the most The Schlieffen Plan -Alfred von Schlieffen overrules powerful battleship ever built (1905) internationa • faster and more thickly armoured Plan: avoid war at 2 fronts l diplomacy • designed to fight at long range (32 km) • Whole German army would invade France, through Belgium and into Paris (6 weeks) Kaiser Wilhelm wanted Germany to become a • Army would move to Russian border - as great world power- needed to be able to the Russians would be ready for war challenge Britain’s navy Plan Seventeen - General Joffre (1913) German reaction: French still had hatred over their defeat in the • German Navy Law ordered the building of Franco-Prussian war 41 battleships and 60 cruisers If war broke out: • Naval League was set up - make people • French would move toAlsace and Lorraine more interested in the navy (tours and - ‘capture’them lectures) • Move across River Rhine and to Berlin • Only work if French moved fast British reaction: • More battleships were built Other Plans • Navy League was formed Britain: agreed to help French if they went to • 1906: Dreadnaught was built war with Germany German: Built Rhineland • Began improving British army British: HMS Neptune = ‘super Dreadnaught’ • Created the Expeditionary Force - 144,000 then HMS Queen Elizabeth soldiers that would travel to France one war began Russia: began building armies (191) Austria: made enormous cannons Imperialism The Tangier Crisis (1905) TheAgadir Crisis (1911) (Moroccan France was getting ready to make Morocco into 1911: Moroccan rebels attacked Fez Crises) a colony (no objections) • French sent 20,000 soldiers to drive them • Kaiser Wilhelm pretended he was offended out, causing the Germans to believe that and went to Tangier (wanted to test alliance they were invading Morocco system) • Kaiser sent a warship to a port inAgadir • Mounted a white stallion, dressed well, and • British had an important naval base nearby went through cheering crowd s and bands - made ready to war if Germany was to • Told Sultan he would stop French takeover create a rival base there TheAlgeciras Conference (1906) • At the last moment Kaiser told German France got special rights in Morocco and warships to leaveAgadir Britain and France would stand against The race to build Dreadnoughts because even Germany at conference table, not war. more frantic ▯2 Causes Explanation Alliances 1873-78: Three Emperors League - NONEARE MILITARYALLIANCES Germany, Russia, andAustria 1896: Dual Entente - France and Russia • Prussian statesman believe it was means of • Effect a response to the TripleAlliance securing the balance of power in Europe • Provided economic benefits - Russia = • Collapse afterAustro-Russian tension in French loans and French = Russian the Balkans mining, industry and raw materials. 1904: Entente Cordiale - France and Britain 1879: The DualAlliance - Germany and 1907:Anglo-Russian Entente - Britain and Austria-Hungary Russia • gone to war against each other - Crimea 1882: TripleAlliance - Germany,Austria- • resolved several points of disagreement, Hungary, and Italy (colonial possessions in M.E andAsia) • provide military support to the others, if 1907: Triple Entente - France, Britain, and one was attacked by two other powers Russia • marked end of British isolationism Nationalism Problem in the Balkans Ottoman Empire (Turkey) had now become ‘the sick man of Europe’, losing control over the Balkan people (often rebelled against Turkish rule). Powerful nations began wanting a piece of the Balkans if the disintegration occurred. Russia: wanted ports on the Mediterranean - make trade easier and warships Germany: wanted to build railway from Berlin to Baghdad in Persia Italy: gain land on the other side of theAdratic (control over sea) Austria-Hungary: wanted to crush rebellious slavs • ‘patchwork empire’- Slavs wanted to break away and form their own nation • Slavs had Serbia just across the border; rebellions would be caused by Serbians The chance came in 1908 when the ‘Young Turks’rebelled. • Ruler of Bulgaria crowned himself King and made country independent • People in Crete broke away and cited with Greece • Emperor Franz Joseph ofAustria Hungary seized provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (full of Serbs) - FATAL MISTAKE as they wanted to be part of Serbia Italy made war on the Turks, making it easier for the Balkan country to seek independence First Balkan War (1912) Second Balkan War (1913) • half a million soldiers on each side • Disaster for Bulgaria because both Turkey • 50 days of fighting, Turkey surrendered and Romania joined (4 side attack) • Turks gave up land andAlbania was • Bulgarian army lost 50,000 soldiers and created (conference in London) land that they just received • 4 kings: Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and • Serbia benefitted the most: double country Montenegro soon began to fight size and became more proud and • Bulgaria made war on Serbia and Greece aggressive - made slavs inAustria for more land Hungary jealous and rebel ▯3 Causes Explanation Assassination The Black Hand Result: The July Days Leader: Dragutin Dimitreivic (akaApis) Franz Joseph and his advisers were sure the • 2,500 members Black Hand were being helped by Serbian Aim: unite all Slavs in the Balkans into a single government. He gave king of Serbia an country - Yugoslavia through terror ultimatum or invasion would happen: • all Serbs in Bosnia under Serbia • Must take steps to get rid of the Black • Plan: Go to Bosnia and plant bombs, shoot Hand and anti-Austrian societies enemies and then sneak back into Serbia • LetAustrian officials into Serbia to make • Method: all guards on the border were sure job was being done and to investigate Black Hand members • Austria didn't want diplomatic solution - Austrian government was outraged and feared they knew they would deny it that they would cause rebellion throughout the King Peter answer that he would not let empire Austrian officials into Serbia • Announced thatArchduke Franz Ferdinand • Austria broke off relations with Serbia would go to Sarajevo on 28 June (National • Made their army ready for war Day for the Serbians People) • The next dayAustrians shelled Belgrade with cannons Archduke - understood the problems of the Serbian people - sympathetic to their cause Spread of the War The war began to spread throughout Europe Gavrilo Princip was the leader and 3 other due to alliances students joined him. 1. Russians mobilized army to help Serbia • 4 weeks before the visit they slipped into (Russians were Slavs) Bosnia 2. Germany sent ultimatum to Russia, demanding them to stop 28 June 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand and 3. Russia did not accept - Germany declared his wife, Sophie, were murdered in Sarajevo war on Russia • First bombing at the car by the students 4. French mobilized army to defend Russia and Princip failed - Ferdinand saw it 5. Schlieffen plan began: mobilize army to coming Belgium border • Cancelled his visit and turned back 6. British ordered him to back off - given • Garvrilo Princip was standing on the road until midnight: no answer. The line was and shot them. He attempted to commit dead between London and Berlin for 4 suicide but he was captured and beaten up. years. 7. All powers were at war The murder gaveAustria-Hungary the excuse it wanted to take over the Balkans Social Developments - National Unity Throughout Europe, people cheered on the war, thinking each of their countries were going to win (brainwashing in order to achieve nationalism) • France: Despite socialist opposition to the war, French population rose up and demanded war from their government (avenge the losses of the Franco-Prussian War) ▯4 • Jean Jaurès (French socialist leader) - “Don’t become a victim of this propaganda, work towards establishing and bettering your own society - bourgeois war” • 31 July:Assassinated by a French Nationalist - wanted France to go to war with Germany and the socialists stood in the way • Union Sacrée: political truce in France in which the socialists agreed not to oppose the government • Germany:After Kaiser declared full unity (despite political orientation) of the German people, Socialists decided to support their government - Nation over Class • Italy: not committed to fight, unless its allies in the Triple Entente were attacked COUNTRY OVER CLASS 
 ▯5 Lecture 2: During the War Early Battles Russia v Germany France v Germany Allies v Germany Battle of Tannenberg Race to Sea Battle of Marne (August 1914) (Sept – Oct 1914) (September 1914) - End of Schlieffen Plan Result: Germany won France needed materials Battle: German armies grew apart while advancing into and troops from Britain Paris • Even though Russia and Germans wanted to had 10x # of soldiers deny that • Allies took advantage of this and attacked between and bulk of German the two armies (confused the Germans) • Attempts by Franco- army was still in British and German • Taxis of the Marne:Afleet of taxis drove soldiers France armies to envelop
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