Class Notes (806,895)
Canada (492,510)
History (3,202)
HIS242H1 (160)

#22: Demographic Transformations .pdf

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Doris Bergen

DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSFORMATIONS MIGRANTS, IMMIGRANTS, AND NEW GENERATIONS, 1950-2000 INTRODUCTION •The upheaval of WW2 created an enormous movement of people — displacements, refugees, population transfers, expulsions, and border changes Decolonization, collapse of communism, the Cold War, European integration — all • involve movements of people •People will describe this change in the last half of the century as the changing face of Europe — a darker phase of Europe? •Europe can no longer be described as racially homogenous — perhaps Europe was never racially homogenous •Europe is now home to millions of people from all over the world D IRTYP RETTY THINGS (trailer) C HANGING FACE OF E UROPE •May 2000 — German president gave a speech titled “Without Fear and Illusions: Living Together in Germany” •Germany had become a multicultural country •Used to be commonly said that Canada, US, and Australia were countries of difference and that the European countries were not — this was no longer true by 2000 •The President is celebrating the difference present in Germany •The notion of Europe as somehow homogenous or neatly divided ethnic spheres is not true •16 to 19 century — most of the population movement was from Europe out th •By the 20 century that movement switched directions •There was always some pluralism inside Europe — multinational empires were sprawling empires with many different kids of languages, religions, and cultures •Not a change from monolithic cultural units to multiculturalism, but there were significant changes •Major population changes began around the time of WW2 — both the Nazis and the Soviet Union used the force of population movement as a tool of control •1950s — massive amount of population movement often linked to economic issues and changes •In the first postwar decade most of this movement was from south to north within Europe — ex. Yugoslavia to West Germany •Also significant population movement from east to west within Europe — ex. the German-German border •There was also a significant movement to Europe from the outside, especially from the former colonies DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSFORMATIONS MIGRANTS, IMMIGRANTS, AND NEW GENERATIONS, 1950-2000 ECONOMIC M OTIVATED M OVEMENT TO E UROPE TEMPORARY •Some of the economic immigration was based on the notion of temporary migrant labor •The German term Gastarbeiter (guest worker) was used to describe a pattern of labor movement that was officially sponsored by the West German government with the idea that guest workers would come (mainly from southern Europe or Turkey) to work in agriculture and in industries associated with the rebuilding of the West German economy •From the term it is evident that these people were supposed to come and then go again They were generally young men who sought work opportunities elsewhere in • order to leave their families at home •Temporary labourers were particularly crucial in postwar European economies because all ready before the war the birthrate around Europe was very low — the need for labor after the war was quite intense, which in turn required a lot of labourers •1946 — 10,000s of Italian workers were brought to Belgium to work in the coal mines •1956 — West German President travelled to Italy with the specific goal of recruiting Italian guest worker to the German economy •Over the next 10 years the West German government signed agreements with Greece, Italy, Spain, Turkey, Morocco, Portugal, Tunisia, and Yugoslavia arranging for this movement of guest workers PERMEANT •Another source for the labor movement was from former colonies At first these numbers were quite small — the de-colonization process often meant • that the first workers were actually white professionals •The number of former subjects who moved to Europe also began to pickup dramatically during the 1960s •1969 — 600,000 Algerian
More Less

Related notes for HIS242H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.