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Germany and the Revolution

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Michael Kogan

His242: July 19, 2011 Lecture 1. End of the first world war 2. Germany and the Revolution 3. Russia and its civil war 4. The early 1920s 5. Post ww1 and the reordering of Europe 6. Ww1 led to the replacement of old empires 7. Self-determination from Western, Central and Eastern Europe 8. The boarders of the new states that were created at the Paris peace conference, have lasted till today 9. The spread of democracy across the continent, came nationalism, the spead of the nation state --because of the difficulty of the different political parties 10. In the old empire, the loyalty was to the emperor, thus different enthicities were accepted as long as they pledge their loyalty, but the new states that ememrged after ww1 derived their nationalism from one group 11. This created a challenged for those that believed the nation belonged to one national group 12. Those are the type of nentions during the interwar period 13. How did the first world war ended in Germany? 14. November 1918—the german ppl were fed up with the war efforts and were being told by the press and govt, they needed one more effort which was unrealistic and frustrated the German people 15. On November 9, 1918—many ppl took to the streets of Berlin to protest , 2 days b4 the war officially ended, the authorities couldn’t find any reliable troops to put down the protest, so the two generals, persuated the empiror of Germany to advocate, there are a lot of parallels between Russia and Germany 16. They asked him to advocate because they feated the state’s authority would disappear, so the empiror left to Belgium 17. Who will step in? 18. There were several contenders of power, from the central left the german social democratic party (SPD) 19. It was composed of moderate socialists who cooperated with the war efforts, they called for a parliamentary republic, wanted the social democracy to flourish 20. Further to the left, was the independent social democratic party, which wanted an immidate comporomised peace and called for the revolution of the soviet party 21. The radical facism within the party was led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg 22. The sparticas 23. They call themselves the spartics 24. The SPD proclaimed a parliamentary republic, and the Independents declared their own republic, 25. Unlike the Russia, the spartics were more organized, the SPD dominated 26. With Germany at peace, Sparticus couldn’t 27. Land, peace and bread (Russia appealed to the population) 28. Germany was at 2 days peace after the revolution began 29. Germans couldn’t use peace as a slogan The battle for control 30. From 1918-1919 over who would govern Germany 31. Fredrich Ebert—moderate socialist leader & allied themselves with the empire’s remaining bureaucrats 32. “free crops” 33. Weimar 34. Ebert made a deal with the Prussian generals to leave the authority of the officer core intact 35. He would get control of the workers in clase they decide to side with sparticus 36. unified their group 37. Ebert and his allies responsed by turning themselves with the moderates 38. The Free corps were a white wing group that stalked the streets and recruited as an anti- revolutionary force 39. They killed many of the communist leaders 40. They also killed thousands of workers 41. By jan 1919, the communists were mostly defeated 42. The moderates were victorious with the help of the conservative party 43. A constitutional assembly was held in the city of Weimar and brought sovernty to Germany 44. They left many of the bureaucratic institutions intact 45. The wealthy land owners were still intact 46. Just the leader changed 47. These groups had lots of power and influence and they remained half heartedly in support of the democratic government 48. The Weimar republic was unstable for those reasons 49. Paris Peace Conference, 1919 50. --reason why the Germans thought they were mistreated 51. The “big four” 52. Priminister david loyed geoorge of the UK, groupr klaminso of France, president widrow willson of the us, ritorio of Italy, each of these leaders had different goals 53. French wanted to debilitate Germany as a military threat against them 54. They wanted to put their troops in the wrime land 55. The British supported the French goals, 56. But they also wanted to restore the German economy as a support block for communist Russia 57. The Italians were involved because they were bribed by the alpine region 58. Widrow Willson of the US was the most ambitious, he wanted national self-determination, as a bases for the new state, based on the idea of ethnicity determined states 59. The new Europe—they wanted to divide the land through ethnicity 60. The league of nations founded to settle international disbutes and war and increase dialog, he wanted to get back to nations rather than empires 61. All the powers agreed that Germany was responsible for the war and that they should assume the financial burden of the war 62. War guilt clause—the fact that they have to pay for everything and blamed for everything 63. As a result of this, germany had to pay heavy reperations and had to give up the merchant and fishing and railroad stock and limit the size of its army—a heavy burden on a new government—paying for the mistakes of the Germany empire—led to a lot of resentment 64. In reality they didn’t have to pay that much but psychologically it affected them 65. Hitler would refer to the war guilt clause New States Committee 66. Legislate minority rights 67. The new state committee had responsibility of drewing out boundaries of the new empires 68. Poland map— 69. The committee desided to deal with the minority issue in Poland by making it sign a treaty guaranteeing all these rights 70. These rights and protections were to protect the minorities 71. League of Nations as protector—legislate minority rights 72. These types of treaties were signed by all the states 73. The system was sifficult to enforce, because the minorities couldn’t bring cases to the league of nations 74. Big offenders were never punished for the most part, they had it on paper only 75. Not everyone had to accept the system, like germany 76. Western Europe had much fewer minority, unlike Eastern Europe—it’s a bigger issue there 77. This new state rule was a way of civilizing the Eastern Europeans 78. In order for democracy to work, they had to assimilate the minorities 79. This whole arrangement overlooked the great powers and how they abused the minorities –double standard of the West 80. Nationalism and Minorities 81. Realities of the system 82. Alternative to legislating Minority Rights 83. Formily ruling minorities had to assimilate to the new national domination 84. Inspite of the new rules, eastern Europeans discriminated against the minorities as they were building national communities 85. E.g. the polish ignored the ukranias and only taught polish 86. The emphasis of these elites made them atisemetic 87. The jews wouldn’t assimilate-they argued 88. Alternative to the legislating minority rights—violence was used to kill the minorities, the armanians were killed in turkey 89. Repatriation was another solutions—send them back to where u think they belong 90. E.g btw Greece and Turkey, 1.2 million Greeks 1922—were forced to uproot from Turkey back to Greece, 500 000 turkes back to the Greece 91. They don’t speak the langugee the only thing in common was the religion
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