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Tuesday, January 10,2012 Lecture 24: Wilfrid Laurier and Canadian Politics I. Louis Riel Revisited -Louis Riel was hanged in 1885 and the problems that became between French Canada and Eng- lish Canada -Riel can be said a father of Confed and the father of Manitoba -Conflict over memory how to remember Riel: as a martyr or father of confed. -People were asking what Riel means and the comings to Canada. It was between Catholic French and Protestant English and how he should be understood in 1885. Big conflict was when Riel shot Thomas Scott n 1870 and the English saw his hanging as a punishment for his crimes (two rebellions and killed someone), this is the Riel Ontario saw him. To French Canadians they saw Riel as insane because he had many religious versions who was going to build a new Catholic Church in the New World and they see his hanging as injustice because he was Catholic and French. -Key points rule through Laurier’s 10 year as Prime Minster: 1.The division of Confed between the French and English. 2.Local issues become national 3.Cultural issues become political issues II. Growing Divisions • Manitoba Schools Question -In 1890 the Manitoba government stopped funding for separate schools: catholic schools and bilingual schools • ManitobaAct (1871) - The province is divided between the French and English, also division in power and the compro- mise is separate schools. This is entrenched in the ManitobaAct. -Less than 10% of French in Manitoba by this time, more people from Ontario are coming. -The idea was to settle the West -By the 1870s settlers came and joined the already Protestant English, and they felt that separate schools would decreases the politics and the divisional powers. • “Remedial Legislation” -They changed from local issues to national because education was a provisional government is- sue and in the BNAact it says that the Federal government protects religious and language mi- norities. The Federal government can pass a “remedial legislation” meaning that they can pass laws to protect the minorities. -Quebecers came up with a new idea of confed, that is was a bi-cultural compact between two groups of people (Protestant and French). British Empire • D’Alton McCarthy: Conservative MP from Ontario and against Quebec • Equal Rights Association: Founded by McCarthy in the late 1880s.Against the French and their separate schools. • Orange Order: Loyal to the crown made up of English Protestants andAngelo. Every town had one and they were a male order III. The Laurier Style -Because of the Manitoba school question leads to a new question in politics -From 1867 - 1896, MacDonald’s Conservatives always won the elections except one. Towards the end there weakening because MacDonald dies in 1891 and there are leaders but for a few months and not stable. Conservatives are truly a national party through out the years. National strength eroding over time. -1896 Laurier is Prime Minister he is part of the Liberal party. -They win four majority governments in a row: 1896, 1900, 1904, 1908 -Does it in a quasi Macdonald way, don’t win in all like Conservatives did but do very well and Laurier’s appealing compromise attitude seems to work IV. The Sunny Way • They Sunny Way (Aesop’s Fables) -Laurier puts his compromise attitude to practice by using the fable mentioned above to show politics in Canada during this. We need the sunny way the happy way of compromise. • Compromise on Manitoba -Negotiated with the Manitoba government, there will be: 1. No publicly funded separate school system in Manitoba 2. There will be provision for non English and catholic education were numbers warrant. Schools would stay opened an hour later in areas with more French and Catholics and a catholic teacher or priest would came in a teach to the students who wanted it. Where there were enough number of students that did not speak English, they would teach them English. If numbers war- rant any language can be taught. -When looking at this the catholic clergy did not like this, and Laurier got the pope to send them a letter say even though this isn’t the best it is good enough under the circumstances. • AutonomyActs (1905) -The acts that createAlberta and Sasckewon that were still part of the Northwest territories. -Important issue who gets the land and what to be done with the schools. Laurier’s cabinet is di- vided on this. • Clifford Sifton -In charge of Minister of the Interiors (ex. Immigration) -He is from Manitoba and resigns when the act has mention separate funding catholic schools -Laurier does not want to lose him so makes him re-read the act. This gets the French angry. -He leaves cabinet and does not return. -By making him happy, loses his French base in Quebec. • Henri Bourassa -Cultural schools across the country and both schools rep. compromise. -What is at stake, what does confed mean? Its changing and the political and cultural changes of Canada. Thursday January 12, 2012 Lecture 25: Immigration as Peril and Promise I. Societies in Motion -Immigration varies from time to time -1896-1914 is when there is a boom in immigration. In this period 3 million immigrants come to Canada. -->We want to understand why immigrants came to Canada, who they are and looking at im- migration in a border way (important to Canadian history) one form of shaping Canadian history (immigration). -Migration is a key theme in history ie, immigration into Canada and people leaving (more im- portant at some points in history). People moving around Canada (internal migration as a theme) -After 1896 there is over 100 million Canadians leaving in the US. French Canadians migrated to New England II. ANation of Emigrants • Push and Pull Factors -Why did people leave (push) and where they ended up (pull) -The French Canadians left in 1896 because there is not enough land and space in the rural areas of Quebec. In the cities the industries were not as developed as the rest of Canada. The French see the rest of Canada not a good place for them because there are anti- French and Catholic movements. Where as in New England there is a huge boom for industries. The French work in- dustrial jobs and build communities. -Large number of English immigrated to the US as well. They would hope back and forth across the border. Most migrants during this time would make a lot of movements going to different places. -The English were seeking land at first and then industry jobs. English Canadians are hard to spot out because they blend in more with theAmericans, they do not make newspapers like the French and live in distinct communities. • “Little Canada” -Areas of the cities in the US that are similar to Canada -These are the areas where the French build churches, schools, organizations that are all French influenced. Same amount of newspapers in New England as in Quebec. New England is an ex- tension of the Quebec experience. • Fall River & Lowell, Massachusetts -These two cities are two out of four of the largest French cities in NorthAmerican. -Like any immigrants French Canadians are paid the lowest wages, discriminated against by the Americans. • Carroll D. Wright -Government official in Massachusetts called the French, the Chinese of the Eastern states. Basi- cally calling the French the unskilled, uneducated and everything else that is bad about them. • “Backdoor Immigrants” -Many immigrants arrived in Canada then went to the US (where they wanted to really go). 50 000 immigrants in 1891 came through Canada then went to the US. • “Canadian Agreement” -Both governments agreed that US border officials can be stationed at Canadian ports to check out the immigrants that are coming through. Canada is letting the US come through to create ba- sically human border line. III. Immigration and the Canadian State -1896 immigration levels start to boom (3 million) -1913 is the most that ever come -Continuity and change in sources of immigration. Britain is still the source of immigrants com- ing (about 60 %). The change in the Laurier period is not the British are less dominate in immi- gration. Europeans are mostly from central, southern and eastern. Global and local factors cause this change. • The Reason of Change in Immigration Patterns -First on Canadian side: Laurier spends large amount of sources on getting people to come. -> Sifton appealed to farmers to come to Canada because he felt that they were going to do better things in Canada and fill the West and create great farms. He also wants families to come to Canada and does not care about nationality. ->Basically he sees farmers as economic promise ->Promoted Canada heavily in US and Europe ->Also encouraged block immigration which is basically a group(block) of people coming ->Discouraged groups: Chinese (they had to pay a head tax to come to Canada).African Americans and lastly poor urban British people (poor physical quality and they can not farm) • Frank Oliver, Minister of Interior, 1905 - 1911 -Takes over from Sifton -Ethnicity is much more important for Oliver than Sifton. -Second theme: Basically even if a certain group is a skilled worker, its more about a cultural idea and building Canada up in nationality. -> He wanted Canadians, British,Americans ->He set up the first modern immigration regulations. Basically to make things harder for certain racial groups. • “Gentleman’sAgreement” -Limits the immigration from Japan. • “Continuous Journey” -You could not come directly from India to Canada. Stops people from India coming over to Canada. -How much of an effect does all the work the government is doing to get people to come to Canada actually work. -The Global movement of people, late 19th century early 20th people are moving in mass num- bers because of new technologies and the change happening in the world. -By the 1890s fewer of the people are going theAmericas (theAmerican frontier had closed). People came to Canada because there was still land compared to the US where there was no more land. -The regulations did have effect on groups such as theAsians. -Governments have to bow down to big businesses because they want more immigrants to do the labour work. -Think of the world in motion January 17,2012 Lecture 26: Farms, Factories and Bunkhouses I. The Host Society -Immigrants were not very welcomed by the host country when the group that came was not a group that the host society really liked. • Asiatic Exclusion League -Organized in BC in the first decade of the 20th century -Large and influential movement, that bought together a large range of different groups -The cultural and economic affect of theAsians -There were big movements against them -There was a fear that they would take over -Worried about change in society ie. drug trafficking • An act to prevent the employment of female labour in certain capacities - “The white woman’s labour law” (Saskatchewan , 1912) -Could not employ white woman if you wereAsian -Woman feared sexual influences fromAsian employers -Racial hostilely exceeded to groups we wouldn’t think of today. -It was not clear to people what racial lines are, it changes over time -Language of race was flexible during this time period II. Immigration and Canadian Development -Arrive in Canada during a time of economic boom -The government did not collect stats like they do today -The period of the late 19th century to early 20th is known as a time that immigration did in- crease • The farming frontier (wheat) -Immigrants come to work in the farm industry because there are jobs there and the economy is doing well during this time -Alot of movement between farms to cities and back again -Key principle of Canada was to settle the prairies. -There was nothing left for some people in their home lands so when people heard that Canada had land (homesteads for cheap). They would pick nuts and berries to sell to the local markets and to haverest as well. They would open different parts of the areas at different times to keep things organized. There are no townships in the area of the west. They needed to buy an ox, but they needed cash. Worked on near farmers for wages and cut down fire wood and sell and trade to stores in the towns. Clearing the land is hard work and by 1907 they have cleared 15 hectors of land. By WW1 they have a two story house and a farm. These takes years but it is done. Slow process, family economy (work together), kin and friendship connections were an important part of this experiences (change migration when someone goes somewhere cause they have family or friends in an area). Acomplex process, the government hopes it will be an orderly process. The Canadian government images the land as squares. But it is not orderly on the ground, squatters go out before the land is opened and stay there. No one just stays in one spot, they practice a mixed economy. They are tied to local and transaltantic economies.Alot of the wheat goes to Britain. The Prairies are the bread basket for the British Industrial revolution. The way the process is repeated over and over again. Resettling the prairies moving the natives out and mov- ing new europeans in. Mixed population in the prairies. The industrial/ resource frontier • -Alot of immigrants went into working in industries -Rail way, road building -Coal and mining -The Bunkhouse men who go to the Canadian Shield as the site of resources for mining, cooper, nickel -Mixture of people • Sojourners -Immigrants who do not come and stay but to come and do hard work to earn wages stay for about a year and then would come back to their home country. -Young men • Urban Development -Cities are booming in this period -Winnipeg becomes a big place for wheat in the east and west. Largest handler of grain in the world (1909). -Rail way development as well -Mass of urbanization -By 1921 50% of Canadians live in urban areas. -Huge increase in metropolitan centers III. Ethnic Webs -Things / people that tie people together • Family • Neigbourhood (Little Italy, Vancouver’s Chinatown) • Religious Institutions -German migrants: Lutheran, Catholic, Jewish -Catholic Church: French Canadian/ Ukranian conflict • Secular institutions -German society (winnipeg, 1892) -International Reading Room (Ukranian Winnipeg, 1898) -Rome Mutual Benefit Society (Winnipeg, 1911) IV. Contact Zones • School -Aplace for people to integrate with different groups of people Work and Market • • Political Parties “Ethnic Brokers” -They want to mix the immigrants into politics because they see them as voters. They use ethnic brokers to mix with the immigrants to get them to vote for their parties. -The liberal party wanted to get the chiense to vote for them so they would offer them govern- ment jobs. January 19, 2012 TheAge of Light, Soap, and Water 1. TheAge of Reform Ida Whipple – 1910, 17 year old, won a prize for an essay title, “Busy East”. Called for better public library services, better policing, more expert civil government. She also combined local observations, with very international reading. Really speaks to the power of reform ideas, pene- trating into the populous. 1910, a great age of reform movements, many groups were organized to correct problems, of merging modern industrial order. Existed in an international sphere of ideas, not just thinking about Canada, but acting locally. Typical reformer in this period, general- ly middle class, anglo and protestant, a white anglo saxon protestant. Most reform causes gath- ered coalitions, of professionals, clergy and others. Catholic ones existed in separate spheres. The social position of the reformers, shaped the way they understood the problems. Pa- triarchal family, expertise, and anxiety, particularly about the sudden changes in immigration. Shapes even the practical solutions. Regenerate society, and the human soul. 2. Settlement Houses Urban institutions, trying to deal with incoming immigrants. Import both in Britain and the Unit- ed States. It is an international idea, and spreads to most major cities in Canada. TheAll People Mission, in Winnipeg, J.S. Woodsworth. First is immigrant aid, like clothes, and social worker, which starts to come together, and offering advice to mothers. Recreation, working as a commu- nity centre, and send poor immigrants to restore them by using nature. Third, missionary work, being christian institutions. Motivated by the social gospel, the idea that christian ought to do Gods work on earth. Not just to save the souls of others, but to do good work on earth, improving the conditions of humanity. Whole christian idea was built into the fabric of the problems. The agenda is to improve social conditions, and to redeem people souls. Social Catholicism, emerges from the hierarchy of the higher church. Education, and Canadianization, the all peoples mission had two kindergarten, and offered civics and English classes. These efforts combine a certain sympathy for the plait of the immigrant. Help the immigrant, while Canadianizing them. The need for a single language, English. 3. The City and Public Health HerbertAmes, The City Below the Hill, one of the key problems of cities, is poverty. Many re- forms concerned that the poor were completely segregated, living separate lives. In toronto, many poor clustered around the ward. Related to poverty was health, the infrastructure was un- derdeveloped, water and sewage, and even worse in Winnipeg, where water was delivered, and swage was emptied into the river which was the source of the water used. Red River Fever, ty- phoid. Dr. Charles Hastings (Medical Officer of Health, Toronto, 1910 to 1929) Division of Child Hygiene ( Toronto, 1915) one issue was purity of water, and hastings, he’s a kind of leader with this emerging health movement. Chlorination of water to kill the bacteria, and to sell milk as of 1914, it had to be pasteurized. The health of children was a key issue, and es- tablished clinics to educate mothers. Clean house was also a considered moral cleanliness. Doctors, were able to give advice, and at the same time of the nature was often that middle class professional judgmental quality. The power dynamic must have been very annoying. The strong connection, between the reformers, and eugenics. Encourage the best to marry the very best, dis- courage the poor from reproducing. Hasting himself was an advocate for this style. Couched in the language of anglo saxon middle class superiority. 4. Legislating Moralit many reforms looks to legislation, trying to cure some of these social problems. Women’s Chris- tian Temperance Union, typifies many aspects of the reformer movements, women being really important in this movement. First, origins in the 19th century, Pickton ontario, 1874 by a sunday school teacher who visited by an American, coming to Canada. It evolves towards coercion, to- wards the problem of drink. Traces back to the old temperance movement, which was a voluntar- ily give up alcohol. Increasingly over the 19th century, turn into prohibition, so they want to gov- ernment action to prevent the consumption and production of alcohol. They feel they can solve many problems, both domestic and poverty. 17, 000 formal members 1914, lurkers, chapters in big cities, and its one part that includes men. Largely middle class protestants, having a paradoxi- cal effect. It broadens the appeal of prohibition through the support of middle class anglo saxons, helping solve other problems. Its middle class quality, limits its appeal, in quebec where there is a reluctance to use the state for moral appeals. It doesn’t make much movement towards immi- grants. Ts language is maternalist, mobilize around ideas of themselves as mothers and women, as virtues roles. They use maternal to justify there public role, giving speeches, huge demonstra- tions. Leading to advocate for vote for women, increasingly sees the path to prohibition for the vote for women.Women should vote because they are different, being mothers to the race and so- ciety, making a moral political system. January 24, 2012 Lecture 28: Canada and the British Empire in theAge of Laurier I. Institutions • The Limits of Confederation -Confederation did not create an independent nation. Created a Dominion of Canada out of the British Empire. It instead resort the way the colonies will governor themselves. The British still had a say in Canadian decisions did this through: 1.Governor General. Queens rep in Canada. They would dismiss bills and decisions if they did not match those of Britain. 2. Responsible Government. The New Dominion has no control over forgein relation- ships, ie declare war and peace. No power to sign treaties with other countries and Britain would sign the treaties for Canada. When Britain was at war, Canada at war, Britain at peace, Canada at peace. It was not a fully independent nation with an in- ternally self governing with British over sight. In the 1840s - 1850s all the colonies were self governing before confed. But after confed they are now responsible govern- ment because they are self governing colonies put together. • Theory vs. Practice -Theory and practice, the Governor General has the say in signing documents but over the years they do this less and less mostly by the time of the Laurier period. -The federal government controls the power of spending so they do not have to send troops if Britain says they are at war. -Britain would include Canadians at important negogations that deal with Canadian issues. -Alaska Boundary Dispute (1903 - 6) -Between Canadians and US dealing with the boarder ofAlaska both want more of the area. -Six member panel, 3 are Canadians and this makes the British see that Canadians need to be there when there are Canadian issues. Basically it leads to a seat at the table for Canada. • Ambiguity -Canada is not an independent nation, serving on internal matters -Practice and constitutional issues on day to day practices -The difference between theory and practice does not mean Canada gets what they want just a seat at the table. II. Ideas The EmpireAs Idea • -They play on a set of ideas between Canada and the British empire -British imperialism is an important demoniac force in living in English Canada during this time period. There are people who believe in the British empire. Living real force in everyday life. -The Three Main Ideas: - Britain is just great. Highest form of progress. They protect their colonial coun- tries. The Anglo-saxon race was superior and they were the ones to lead the world. Basically Britain is the light. -Britain as a national community.Anation is an imaged community. When Canadians talked about their imaged community they talked about Britain. They took seriously there connections to British people in the world. The fear was being swamped byAmer- ican ideas. In order to be Canadian you must be British. It is a way for Canadians to think of themselves bigger than just Canada. -The Empire was a vessel for Canadian greatness. They see that Canada can grow stronger and being a rival to the British Empire. The way for Canada to grow is through the British medium and Canada should have more say in the British Em- pire. • The EmpireAs Popular Culture -Imperial Federation League (all the colonial countries coming to- gether to talk about the Empire) -Autonomy (This does not mean that Canada should just be Britain’s lap dog. How much autonomy should Canada have within the empire and how it should express it- self in daily life) -Empire Day (Celebrating the diamond jubilee of Queen Victoria, in all the colonies. ) May 23 is empire day the day before her birthday. • French Canada and the Empire -There was different ideas of imperialism on French Canada. There were people who were hostel to the British empire. They did want to fight British wars all over the world. Most French Cana- dians if Canada had a duty to the empire was to protect their part of the empire. -There was no sense of imaged community in French Canada. French Canadians wanted more autonomy than the English. Both Canadians were nationalist in there own way. • Imperialism and Nationalism -French Canadians were nationalist because they wanted more autonomy, where as the English saw that British empire was the vessel for Canadian greatness. III. Issues • The Boer War -The SouthAfrican War of 1899 - 1902 -It was between Britain and two Boer Republics. The Boers where descends of Dutch settlers be- fore the British took over and there were conflicts between the two groups and in Oct 1899 war breaks out between them. In Canada this war became the subject of popular debate it broke down into a culture and language issues. The English part said they should send troops toAfrican be- cause they saw this as an opportunity that Canada is useful. French part did not want to go to war and they saw the Boers as a minority in a bigAnglo-Saxon world. -This puts Laurier in a bind because he has english and french in his cabinet. -He makes a compromise he will not force anyone to go and if they want to go they can go. Some are paid for by Canada and some by Britain. This compromise is attacked, the french say that every time Britain ends up in a little war they will look to Canada for help, whereas teh Eng- lish say that was not enough people. • The debate around 1909 if Canada should have a navy • 1901 if Canada should have a free trade treaty with the US January 26, 2012 Lecture 29: The 1911 Election -The most interesting and lowest election I. 1910:ANavy, AJourney -He did things that ended up breaking up his government 1. Set up a navy 2. Took a Rail way journey to the West • Naval ServiceAct (introduced January 1910, royal assent May 1910) - Increasing tension between Germany and Britain, based on naval power - Britain was worried that Germany will catch up to them - Britain asked for help for the dominions for help, give us money so they can keep their empire strong to defeat Germany. - How should we response to this. Most Canadians agreed that we should have its own navy. Two questions followed: 1. What kind of navy? (costal navy to defeat the fisheries (French) or one for more imperial purposes (English) ) 2. What should we do in the short term? Have to build ships, train people. -We should just give Britain the cash now and deal with our navy later. The French believed we should stay out of the British navy issue. -Laurier tried ti fit the middle ground between the two groups -This act had two key provisions: 1. Build a navy with 11 ships (variety of sizes) and set up naval acade- mies. 2. Canadian navy coming under British command when it came to war. -Imperialist mocked at this little navy, instead of giving money to the greatest navy in the world. They are speaking at the center of the notion that Britain rules the way. - For French Canadians, are we going to be dragged into every problem of Britain. Laurier will always commit to have Canada helping Britain at all wars. Bourssa would rather have given Britain the money, its done and over with. - By October 1910, the ships are built and sent out to Britain. • ARailway Journey -Summer 1910 Laurier sets out on rail to the prairies. This is the center that we need to tie to- gether east and west economy with the rail. Central to national development. Soon Canada will have 3 railways. -The question of what he saw when he went West. It was not the West he saw of Riel, but a new west of human reform and economic development. It became a wheat economy and hugely Euro- pean immigrants. -He stops at each town at the railway stations and give a little speech at each one. He meet a cer- emony of welcomes and a list of grievances against elites of central Canada. The issue that topped them all was the tariff. The tariff makes the farmers buy the more expensive machines from in Canada, rather than buy the cheaper one from the US because the tariff made things more expensive. Big problem for wheat farmers who would sell their goods on free markets and buy their products on a tariff markets. They will give up anything that was helpful to them so they can get free trade. They made moral arguments on the best way to build an economy. The tariffs only protected the few elites in Montreal, than the larger group of farmers in the West. The moral compass that the rural life is affected by these tariffs and the farmers are made by God and the cities are made by man. Trade is always wrapped about economy, sovereignty, etc not actual- ly about trade itself. Laurier heard arguments about tariffs hurting farm life through out his jour- ney. II. Reciprocity, 1911 -National policy is the tariffs. -After Confed the Liberals were the party of free trade, whereas the Conservatives were for tar- iffs. -The Liberals did not believe in low trade -They believed in both countries lower their trade, free trade that is what the liberals argued. But it has never gone through. Macdonald attacked this belief of theirs. -Liberals lost elections until they abanonded their reciprocity bill and they accept the national policy under Laurier’s bill. -The liberals used to say the tariffs were wrong and opposed the old policy, old leader. -The farmers wanted the pre-elected Laurier. -1910 farmers are more numerous and organized. They opposed existing national policy. • Canadian ManufacturesAssociation (CMA) -The tariffs appealed to big business -These was a big association in Toronto and Montreal -Farmer groups who opposed the tariffs • United Farmers of Alberta • Saskatchewan Grain Growers Association • Manitoba Grain GrowersAssociation • Grain Growers Guide (f. 1908) -The US was not interested in freer trade, because during this time the US was industrializing their own country and having tariffs in their own country, -By late 1910 reciprocity was being talked about between US and Canada -By January 26 , 1911 the bill was signed -Free trade in natural products -Lower rates in some manufacture products III. The Inner Meaning -This bill will hurt fruit growers, etc. -1 argument reciprocity will weaken east, west economy. Either build Canada East West binding Canada across to Britain or North South binding Canada to the US (continental economy) -2 attack was focused not on the provisions of the deal but the inner meaning which is turning away from Britain and turing towards the US. Linking trade to a continental issue, but also what does Canada owe to the British Empire. Reciprocity is turning to the North South bind. IV. The Election -September 1911, Laurier is in a problem 3 ways: 1. Big business, advertising against him and have propaganda scandal 2. 1911 his own party breaks against the reciprocity deal 3. Venerable in Quebec The Toronto Eighteen • -Published a statement in the newspaper denouncing reciprocity -They are part of the Liberal party • Robert Borden -Borden’s Quebec makes a deal with Borden. Two parties come together against Laurier. • Henri Bourassa -Finds the newspaper Le Devoir (f. 1910) talking about French nationalism. Makes a deal with Borden to get the French on his side. -They condemn Laurier for his lack of Imperialism and Quebec condemn him for his too much Imperialist views -Laurier’s liberals lost 41 seats in Ontario and Quebec. -The Conservatives win the election -Speaks to the divine political nature in two different parties ie. Quebec and English Canada -Trade and Imperial issues -Fears and attractions to the US, and turning away to the British empire. Connection to the US, we want their stuff but we do not want to be them. -Bored P.M during WW1, there will be problems. January 31, 2012 Lecture 30: World War One: The Soldier’s Story I. The War Begins • Archduke Ferdinand (Austro-Hungarian Empire) -He was assassinated by a Serb nationalist -Britain, France, Italy, Germany were all linked by agreements of times of war. Germany invaded Belgium and Britain goes to war. EarlyAugust 1914. If Britain goes to war, Canada is automati- cally at war, same with the other colonies. Canada still has the ability to do what it wants, ie. does not have to send troops. There was very little debate whether the troops should go to war. • Robert Borden -Canada’s good shoulder with Britain and the other colonies, basically they should go to war. • Wilfrid Laurier: “Ready, aye, ready” -He supported the war as well. Basically he says we are ready to join the war. Henri Bourassa • -Critic of the British Empire, Canada should not get involved of every little British problem. He was lukewarm to the idea of going to the war. II. Signing Up -Not prepared for the war even though they were enthuasitic to go. Permanent Force (3, 000 in 1914) • -Training for a about a month, kind of an amateur force. -Small military force a country who is not ready for battle but then goes to a big one. • Militia (60, 000 in 1914) -Chaotic military plan. Sam Hughes cancelled the old plan and goes with a new one sends a mes- sage to what an ideal recruit should be like through the militia leaders. -British loyalty is another way men enlisted into the war. 2/3 were British born immigrants.After this we see is a creeping organization a better way of recruiting the troops, official government aspect. The governments used different tactics to recruit soldiers: 1. Propaganda 2. Local level, perpessure on the street 3. Spoken word, sermons -Mass organizational effort. Recruitment becomes a form of community mobilization. There are local groups get soldiers into the Canadian military force. The head of these units are someone of influence of the local community. -By 1917 willing soldiers are no longing willing to seen up. III. Across the Pond • Canadian Crops -By mid 1916 Canada had four divisions on the field -First under British command then goes under Canadian command -There were two Canadian divisional leaders -By 1916 -1917 less soldiers are willing to enlist • Reasons to go to war: -The nature of the conflict, its not a bush fire. This is a war in Europe and the threat is close to Britain. See this as a European war. -This is ideology, the war is a war between good and evil, right and wrong, between freedom and kaiserism. -The nature of this war is not clear. They like it will be over by Christmas, they rush to get there because they did not want to miss the fight of their generation. -The romance of war, the thrill of experiencing the war. -Social factors, seen as a generational experience. Everyone in your work or class was going. -Ethnicity is another factor, first it was the British born at a higher level and Canadian borns sign up at a lower level. French Canadians are less likely to be happy about the war. -Anglo vs. Franco, manyAnglo were saying that the Franco were not pulling there weight by signing up. It was not to the degree that theAnglo were signing up at. Linguistics was another reason to why they signed up less. The military was very British ie. uniforms, language. • Arthur Currie -First Canadian military leader in 1916 • Kaiserism -Oppression, communism, dictatorship. Germany is an oppressive, evil state. The word comes from Kaiser the ruler of Germany. -This word ends up being used as another word for evil. IV. Mud, Boredom, Terror, Pride -Once the soldiers arrived the romance meet the reality of this particular of the war. -The sense of boredom in soldiers, the first few months of war are very attactive and then after that most of the war is not mobile and then again at the last few months. Much of the war was sitting in trenches waiting for something to happen. -Endless battles with mud was common in letters sent back to the home front. -Many soldiers would get trench foot because of being in the damp muddy trenches. -The hour before dawn and dusk was the time when most attacks happened -The battles were advancing in a mass of humanity and very well tug in defenders -This is the first great industrial war in history -The way of killing has changed and has improved: • Machine Gun • Rolling Barrage Mustard Gas • • “Sausage Machine” • Beaumont-Hamel, July 1, 1916 • Shell Shock -19th century battle plans mixed with 20th century weapons. -Very common in soldiers to talk about the nobility of their struggles. V. The War and Canadian Memory -The sense of a noble battle and this was a noble war. The monuments made to suppress the shell shock and basically to show this war as the good war. The inter mix of soldiers and religion. The war was set up for freedom and christianity and to suppress the conflicts. February 7, 2012 Lecture 31: World War One: The Home Front I. War and Community -Total community mobilization. This recruiting is only one aspect of the community working together. Propaganda was not nec- essarily needed because the community got the word out and told people to go to war before the government -We see the ideas of freedom and democracy in the empire. -Protestant churches were crucial for going to war. Justification for the war that it is right and just because we are defeating the freedom British empire. Bottom up justification for the war, same goes with schools. ie. School teacher made her students act out Canada’s role in the war. • Arithmetic War= solving math problems to move up the ranks (the military ) • Red Cross= the efforts of women to advance the war effort. New and old organizations that would collect clothing, food and they would sow bandages that would be sent overseas. Tradi- tional domestic role and put it towards the war effort • Vacant Lot Garden Clubs= colonize vacant lots to plant veggies to send over to the war effort. The more industrial production to feeding the soldiers over seas. -Everything everyone did was related to the war ie. all the examples above. -As much as community mobilization is a positive thing it can also be a negative thing ie. who is left out of it. (the anti-germans) -Alot of enemy aliens (immigrants) were harassed because of where people came from. ie most- ly Germans • Anti-german league (Toronto, 1916) = to organize against the Germans and a lot of German civil servants were let go. Germans were a key immigrant group. Many towns in Canada had German names and during this time they changed their names ie. Berlin/Kitchener and Dussel- dorf/ Freedom (Alberta). -How quickly the image for Germans changed because of the war, people liked them they were considered racially appropriate and they were preferred immigrants but because of the war no one really wanted them anymore. Many Germans because of the war experience said they were Swedish and Dutch . II. War and Reform -Two reform issues were given a huge boost because of the war • Prohibition= selling and distributing alcohol. How little success it has before 1914. The gov- ernment did not act upon it. Only a few acts that get past of this issue. Canada TemperanceAct (ScottAct), 1878= This allowed local option which means that towns • can decide if they want to go dry or not and they want have referendums to decided. It was very uneven usually small rural towns go dry and the bigger towns do not. Most provinces just wanted to regulate it. -1912 and 1913 both liberal parties in BC and NS ran on a prohibition platform and they were all defeated at the polls. How quickly matters change once the war starts. The prohibition movement was reformed by the war, played on war themes. The war had under cut prohibition and this was a liberty issue. You had to suppress personal sacrifice for the greater good of the community. Prohibition argues a national fit. If you drink to much you will not be a good soldier. The war must be a morale thing, promoting how the war is a morale war and the freedom of Britain and its colonies and making them a better place. Prohibition picks up the war ideas itself and describe the forces of alcohol as king alcohol.Basically the choice was the bar or the war. If you were against prohibition you had sided with the Kaiser because Kaiserism was seen with alcohol. -Over 8hundred signatures for prohibition.All provincial governments except Quebec brought in some form of prohibition by 1917. By 1918 the federal government forces prohibition on Que- bec. -This is were the home front and the war front was different, the soldiers were dependent on al- cohol and they are against prohibition. -Female suffrage, the vote for women was another issue that came around as a social reform dur- ing this time and got a boost because of the war. Prohibition was linked to women’s voting, be- cause a lot of women were the ones leader the prohibition movements. 1916 and 1922 all prov- inces allowed voting for women and when they can run in elections except for Quebec. -Women are also doing so much for the war effort that leads to them being able to vote. III. 1917 • Military Service (passed July 1917) -Forced military service aka conscription, you are conscripted into the army. Borden was in a bind during this time, he is promising Britain more Canadian soldiers (500, 000). Borden says I will give you more soldiers if you give me more of a say. Volunteers for the war is less. Every month less and less Canadians are signing up for the war. The enlists and the demand of the course are on a down hill course. Borden sees conscripting is the only way to get people to go to war. This act says all bachelors and widowers have to register for service and ready to go to war. The biggest problem is the politics of conscription and his problems are 1) he has to have an election in 1917 and at the moment he does this he has to go to the electoral for the vote; 2) it shows the different social differences, rural/ urban splits and capital splits in Canada ie. in Que- bec that they would have compulsory service. The French Canadian members of Borden’s party said to him that this would kill the party for the next 25 years.Also many English farmers and labour leaders are against it. He tries to fix it by exempting farmers sons by he goes against this. He thinks some form of a collation government would be the way to go and the two parties should come together because of the war. Union Government (The Unionists) • -This is the combination of the two federal parties. In late may of 1917 Borden goes to Laurier lets have this collation government and Laurier rejects it because it would not work in Quebec. This party had the ideas of conscription. Borden gets the English speaking people of Laurier’s party to form this government and they agree. They pass two bills: • Military VotersAct, 1917=This enfranchised all members of the military and the soldier can vote union / opposition and he is able to say the vote can be for any riding or there home town. • Wartime ElectionsAct, 1917= This gave the vote to women who are mothers, daughter, wives, sisters of service men. Basically women of soldiers and this is the first a women can vote. This denies the vote to naturalized Canadians from enemy countries after 1902 ie. if you were from Austria, Italy. -Borden dissolves the house in December of 1917 and the Union government runs. They made the Union government into the pro war government and they got 57% of the popular vote and 90% of the soldiers vote. They won 2/3 of the ridings outside of Quebec and basically won no Quebec votes only Canadians. The vote broke down cultural lines basically English Canada against French Canada. Feb. 9, 2012 Lecture 32: Postwar Upheaval -Canada has to deal with social, political, cultural positions after the war I. Influenza, 1918 • Spanish flu -Canada in the fall of 1918 was dealing with a world wide flu that is spreading. It swiped the world into three different phases. The first phase that spread to NorthAfrica was a mild one. The second wave is the most deadly phase as it passed through summer and fall of Canada. The third phases in 1919 was a mild phase. Same amount of people died of the influenza, as in the war. It was a tension that was general experience that one was shaped by your social position.We see this tension as basically just being sick, the micros do not know who you are (poor, white, immi- grant, etc.), everyone basically gets sick.At this time there is no cure and the best to be done is basic nursing care (get rest, chicken soup). The micros do not know social position, but social position does play a role during this flu time. More 20 -40 years were dying of this disease and those of poverty because they are less well feed and nursed and have to go to work. • Quarantine -We see the same tension through the general experience and social experience by the govern- ment trying to stop the diseases ie. the sick to stay home, public meeting places are closed. • Ontario Emergency Volunteer HealthAuxiliary -Citizens mobilize and the government tries to mobilize the aid as well.Trying to get citizens to think of health as an issues. • Sister of Service -Young women (middle class) going to the poorer areas to help the sick. Mobilizing women as the nurtures of society. • Ontario Emergency Diet Kitchen (Winnipeg) -Social groups mobilizing their own volunteer acts. -They would organize food, for those who can get their own food. -This was elite women • JewishAid Committee (Winnipeg) -They pointed their needs to show that the Jews needs to the wider community and that they can take care of themselves and that they have respectability. -By the middle of 1919, influenza has passed out of Canada and the disease has moved on. II. Winnipeg General Strike (and Beyond) • Winnipeg Trade and Labour Council -May 15, 1919 3000 workers walked off the job -The cause was a dispute of construction workers and steel workers they wanted higher wages and union rights. First demand is because the cost of living in Canada had gone up 54%. The sec- ond demand was the middle status of unions, and they were not negotiate. -This council is the main meeting place for their workers demands. This was a place were all the unions meet together (firefighters, bakers, etc.) The members voted to go out on a sympathy strike for the other unions to get their demands. -This basically shuts the city down • Central Strike Committee -The union organizes the deliver of essentially services. Taking over the basic provisions of the city. • Citizens’s Committee of 1000 -They were the elites of the city (lawyers, mayors, etc) they organized the anti-strike -They engaged in propaganda acts. The one of the reasons they are so nervous is not because t is a general strike because there are general strikes going on wide spread in the country. -This is not a good time for the world because there are strikes all over the world going on. -They want to preserve the presences of British law -They even had demonstrations. -They back the ideas of propaganda with force. -They emend the immigration act so they can deport British citizens and they arrest 10 leaders of the strike and put them in jail. -Eventually the strike dies -The strike was about six weeks III. The Fragmentation of Politics • The 1921 Federal Election -First time in Canadian history there is a minority party in power in Ottawa and that is because of the new progressive party • Progressives -They are farmers from the West and they are agree with policies of the central government deal- ing with the West. -They don’t want to be an official party and have party stance. • Henry Wise Wood-group government -Going to Ottawa based on you job -Radical • T.A Crerar -More of a liberal progressive -Other side of progressive -Both men want lower tariffs • William Lyon Mackenzie King (Liberal Prime Minister: 1921-6, 1926-30, 1935-1948) -Most successful Prime Minister in Canada -He waits, and waits and courts the people on small things and the progressive fall apart -The liberals end up becoming a majority by 1926 • Maritime Rights Movement -They pressure the liberal party to raise the tariff so that Nova Scotia can compete with the US with trade and trade to central Canada. IV. TheAssault on Prohibition -Social and cultural excessablity after the war. -Most provinces extend their prohibition laws after the war. -Prohibitionist have two problems in the post war period: the government can close drinking places but they cannot stop production and trading at the boarders. No one can stop the import and exportation of alcohol. It goes to the provision of powers because provinces can not stop federal trade laws • Bootleggers -Selling alcohol illegally and trading it across the boarder • Blind pigs -Running bars out of restaurants -The anti-prohibition groups that came together before prohibition. They seek to organize against prohibition Citizens Liberty Leagues • -This is stupid, this is anti-british we should have the freedom to drink • Moderation Leagues -Drink in moderation, a regime were alcohol is avabile and consumption is moderate. -Between 1919 - 1930 every province adopts some form of government controlled retail. The way to government rule alcohol places: • Liquor Control Board of Ontario (1927) -You needed to write up what you wanted and they would give it to you in a brown bag like a percription and bars would be controlled and men and women would be separated. Feb. 14, 2012 Lecture 33: The Great Depression I. The Crash • Black Tuesday (29 October 1929) -The 16 Canadian stocks declined hugely • Wall Street -This is more of an symbolic start to the Great Depressions, it is like a book ends by dating the Depression as a symbolic being and the second world war is the end. -After WW1 Canada went into a recession and by 1922 the economy starts to recover and grow and national the economic continues to grow until 1929 -The people of the 1920s are happy there are flappers, prohibition, dancers (Charleston). People are propensity and things are really good. Southern Ontario is doing well but not the Maritimes. People start leaving the Maritimes and there economy never really recover. -The crash is not the cause of the depression, it is the cause of inter-related causes such as inter- national stability, over extended credit, mass production these dynamics are international and there for this is a world wide event. In 1929- 1933 the world trade fell about 50%. Keeping the global story in mind, this story can play out in different ways and different ways. Canada was hit hard because Canada depended on the exports of natural resources ie wheat, coal etc. It really feels the world trade going down. International problems intercept to create a perfect storm. One international issue is there is to much wheat in the world meaning that prices of the wheat are go- ing to drop. Locally Canada could not grow wheat because there was droughts in the west. Prices are falling and there is less productions, the wheat economy collapses. Farmers in the west re- ceived far less of an income. These problems spine out into the industries because if no one can buy the productions everything collapses. National and industrial economy fell 1/3 during this time. - The unemployment rate sky rockets during this period. In 1929 the unemployment is 5% and in 1933 there was 35% by 1939 the economy starts to get better and the unemployment is 10% II. Less Eligibility -The federal response to this crisis was not innovated or dramatic • William Lyon Mackenzie King -Said this was not that a big deal and to minimize the problems. The economy goes through highs and lows it will come back. R.B Bennett (Conservatives, 1930- 35) • -They attacked king and they said he should be doing more. They win the election. He created the unemployment relief tax and gave the money to provinces and municipalities to spend on re- lief and public works and this was meant as temporary. Unemployment Relief Act • -He gives 20 million to the country. Two basic types of aid: 1) Public Works public work spending, spending money on public projects ie. building roads, city halls. Getting people to work by building things, instead of doing nothing. 2) Direct Relief -Most common. 1 million Canadians are on direct Relief. Bennet ends giving money to public works and now to direct relief. The government giving cash, vouch- ers or supplies to the people who needed it. It is a local system, lead by cash work of local charities and councils at the municipal level. They thought the people would use the cash for no related things ie. alcohol. So they used vouchers because on the vouchers would say give this person shoes. This was very much a public affair. -This is directed to the less eligibility is the idea aid should sustain life unless the worst job in the local area. Relief provided very little support. -Most municipalities also refused to provide money for rent, clothes and medical care -There was also a lot of moral site for people on relief, you were not a loud to drink or drive be- cause you would be wasting money. -There was an ethic part, immigrants who were in Canadian less than five years would be deport- ed if they were on relief. -The crisis is untraditional but the actions are precedent -Bennett would give people money who sent letters to him. III. Hard Times and Getting By -The result of the crisis, getting by during the depression is a difficult thing and it puts pressure on families to cope. -The raw sense of doing without, not much to live on. People want to work, their identity and self respect is that they do not want to sign up for relief but they want to work. The kind of claim to respectability. Suvivral as a corrupting by the family, the father gets the wages the mother holds down the front. • Tramping: is men going to city to city riding the rails searching for work. • Hobo jungles: camps at the edge of communities of men moving from city to city. The govern- ment did not see these men of looking for work but men who are going to cause trouble. Relief Camps: The government created these camps that are run by the military, giving men • work to do. IV. New Ideas in New Places • Cooperative Commonwealth Federation -This is a new party founded in 1932 - 33. It was to look at the crisis in a new way. • J.J Woodsworth was the leader of this new political group. • Regina Manifesto -They write this manifesto with there ideas in Regina. It is a very powerful rhetoric. The platform contented things that were very radical for the time, social securi- ty, pensions, health care. Its not really anti- capitalist it was meant to get farmers to- gether. They want to use the federal government to correct the crisis and have actions ready for crisis. • Social Credit -Elected in Alberta in 1935 • WilliamAberhart is the leader and the solution to the crisis is to give 25 $ a month to ev- ery Albertan. Alberhart starts this idea but it does not work because the provinces do not have power to print currency. A+B Theorum (Major C.H Douglas) • -The value of all the goods produce and the wage you pay the works does not match. -Basically to get the government involved V. New Ideas in Old Places T.D “Duff” Pattullo (BC premier, elected 1933) • -It picks up on new deal realm from the US employment insurance, health insurance. His prob- lem lacks the money to do this. • R.B Bennett -Decides the government needs to reforms to get out of the depression ie. labour legislation, minimum wage. His two problems are: most of these things he wants to set up are provincial re- sponsibilities and he gets defeated in the election of 1935 William Lyon Mackenzie King (1935-48) his election campaign was its King or Chaos and he does very little but he does Nation employment commission and royal commission on dominion provincial relations (rowel siriois) Feb. 16, 2012 Lecture 34: The Fate of Empire, 1914 - 1939 I. September 1939 Adolph Hitler • -Britain declares war on Germany after many arguments -Aweek later Canada enters into war because of the links between Canada and the British em- pire. Now they have the power to declare war and because of that they just wait a week. • William Lyon Mackenzie King -The answer to waiting a week has to deal with the politics of King and the response of Canadi- ans II. Canada and the Empire • Robert Borden -Ideas that linked Canadians to an imaged world of the British empire. -He is interested in WW1 leveraging Canada’s role in WW1 to get more decision making power in imperialism foreign power • Loring Christie -He is Borden’s adviser and a believer in more autonomy • Coordinate autonomy -Christie comes up with this that Canada should have more autonomy, and all the colonies of Britain will come together and to coordinate what they are going to do.All the dominions will have a better say in there autonomy. -In 1916 the Britain is more opened to this idea. The new Prime Minister by David Lord George sees everything the dominions have done, and they should have a say. He does two things to put this into practice: Imperial War Cabinet, 1917; a cabinet were all the dominions send there Prime Ministers and they all can sit down and have a say. This allows Borden to get access to the war that he has been apart of. This is where he got the idea that conscription is needed. Resolu- tion IX of the Imperial War Conference: they are a place where a common imperial is- sues can be talked about, how should the empire work. They came up with resolutions and the most important was Resolution 9 says that the dominions should be autonomous but we are go- ing to figure that out after the war. • Paris Peace Conference, 1919 -The war is over, this is a post war settlement all the delegates from the countries involved in the war coming together. They drew lines and changed geographic lines on the map. Canada has their delegates here, and we can see Canada getting a distinct formal foreign policy. • Treaty of Versailles, 1919 -This comes of the Paris Peace conference and settles WW1. Canada signs a multi lateral treaty on its own. The signature is symbolically important moment. Canada’s signature was legally meaningless. • League of Nations, founded 1919 -The collected security of its members. Canada gets its own delegation in the league of nations. -Canada increasingly gets its own treaty power. The dominions have there own local issues that they need to make treaties that does not deal with Britain. • Pacific Halibut Treaty, 1923 -Access to fisheries around the east coast with the USA -Britain lets Canada sign it without Britain being there • Angelo-JapaneseAlliance -The break down that there is a notion that there can be a foreign imperial policy -It paralyzed the imperial conference when everyone got together one of the issues was, was it to be renewed. The pacific places wanted it to be renewed because Japan was growing power and Canada did not want it renewed because USAwas a growing power and they had treaties with Japan and they did not want to create problems. -Geopolitical played a part in this alliance because the empire is not one place but in different parts of the world. • Chanak Crisis, 1922 -Britain and Turkish nationalist dispute, Britain goes to get dominion support. King is in power says parliament will decide to go but parliament is not in session so they do not have to make a decision and go. • “Anomalies” • Statue of Westminster, 11 December 1931 -It grants the dominions full autonomy if they want it. Canada just has to pass a law saying they are accepting this statue. BNAact 1867 • -Divided powers between the federal and provincial powers and they had problems saying who gets what. Two issues: who will admend the BNA act, and since they could not agree they let Britain decide. 2) What is the highest court. • Judicial Committee of Privy Council -Highest court of appeal for court appeals. The Supreme court of Canada is the highest. The provinces do not like this because the federal government appoints the judges and the provinces are afraid that supreme court will si
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