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University of Toronto St. George
Erin Black

Towards modern America 1870- 1910 i. The beginning of the civil rights struggle ii. Filling in the trans missippi west iii. Industrialization and the rise of big business iv. The rise of organized labour v. A n ation of immigrants vi. The growth of the American metropolis i. The beginning of the civil rights struggle Blacks were mis treated through linching in the new south The NS is still not equal to blacks not much diff from old south This is a periode of rapid change in America ex industrialization Becomes a nation of facvtories and urbanization and civil rigths nmovements and transcontinental ( actually settling in the claimed territory This was considerd the gilded age (hiding something that is ugly underneath beautiful on top easy to scratch off and see) Ex industrialization having negaitive effects on some immigrants and other americans The black response to segregation Afr tried to boycott business others decided to crpss the barriers ex sitting on white side pff bus others tried to sue that never went anywhere because segration was legal To many segregated facilities were better than none at all Civil rights leaders emerge in this erra pre mlk We foucs on 3: 1. Ida Wells (a woman) women were still expected to be in the provaxcy of home She went againt the lynching making the gov speak to this She flips their thinking in her pampthlet, saying blacks get linched for taliign to white women but white men raped slaved She was not alive when the law was passed 2. Booker t Washington Born A slave inm 1880 he founded the Tuskegee instate for black children It made no sense to protest against whites that just pissd them off what we need to do is change their perceptions of us Instead of wadging politiocal battels we must be positive members of our community and nation economic develop,enmgt at the forefront of his agenda Many thought he his way was to soft but it worked, he was the 1 black to be seated in a white house dinner But that wasn’t enouygfh especially for those in the north They sea him m as to much as a appeaser of whites 3. W.E.B.Du bois Born in south well edugated first blackman to hjave a phd from Harvard Becomes spokes person of niagra movement: claiming every roight that belongs to fvree born am,ericans Opposite of washiungton he wanted protest One of foundrers of NAACP (national association of advancement of colored people) Laying ground worlk for modern civil rights movement We see something similar in the deveolop men6t opf the American west ii. Filling the trans missippi west The end of civil war and linkin g of rail roads brought progress to the west Bhy turn of 20 cent Most plafces relied on minning ex California gold rush 1849-1852 Gold rushes were popimng up all over the west coast Alos was cattle kindom 1860-1890. Where ranchers followed railroads to plains also making it possible tyo get wheast back to market Cowbosy would drive herds as big as 5000 whwere they would be shipped to major cities sych as Chicago and sold Commercial farming solely for profit this is not new but the crops are such as hay corn etc use to be tabacco on slave plantations Corn use to be sold for family and local market now becom ing national and international Human labour being replaced due to new technology 2 men with machienes could do what many men could do ion 1 day Americasns begin to look at all of this as a sign of progress the civilizatiopn and taiming of the west = Americas manifest destiny Overspreading and civilization of continent Portraits of American progress : John gnast American progress 1872 American thinking about Indians: Progress civilizing thew wilderness Natives perceived as part of wilderness Goal is assimilation : concentrating natives on small parts of land out of the way of whites and their growth Taught to become self sufcient farmers having the blessings of white civilizations on them trhis wa\s callwed reservations kill the indian anjd save the man inside= This was stripping the natives of everything that made them barbaric o0klahoma was set up as a indian persrerve for ever but in 1890 it was taken back by whites native amerivcans do not believe in land ownership their lives consist of following herds of buffalo which they would live off of now they were supposed to settle in one place people believed this wou;d break tribal loyalities dawes severalty act 1887: authorise servering of reservations so oit could be broken down in to individual pieces of land given to heads of families up to 160 acres of land each the native people do not own this land it is held in trust by American guv for 25 years where the natives would have to prove the worth of it by showing how they can tend to it and give uop their native heritage they can then own it these were said to be policies of peace instead of extertminating them, in realty it wasn’t the army made life for natives so bad theyre best option weas to move onto the reserves ex chied joseph planed to take his people to Canada were theyre were better reservation deals the American army chased them 1000 miles north where they caught in southwest the camanchi tribe caused the most problems (geranimo) 1881 the Sioux nation surrenders one of their chiefs sitting bull embarsed the American army by defeating general George Armstrong custer at the battle of the little big horn 1876 Sitting bul makes it to alberta Canada but many of them ended up going back to America and sent to reservations in 1831 sitting bull surrenders aswell to their reservations This ois something that helps win wets for us and loose for natives another way is: Take away the land they rely on and hut slaughtetr and kill milluions of buffalo thjat the natives relied on Part was deliberat other was commercial interest for their hide (leather) With the buffalo gone the native plain way of life ended by end of 1880s much feelings of hopelessness They begin to practice the ghost dance: a ceremony that would envoke the spirits of the pastr an lead them form whit influence in a time and place where theyre were no whites Sitting bull is arrested and killed for, promoting this practice that was practiced off reservation They found the antives at a place called wounded knee Most of the natives complied excrept for a death man, American soilder is shot in attempt to take his gun, amry open fires on the rest of the natives there This is a evenmt that burns uin thire hearts forever also marks the last armed conflict between americans and native es The goal of assimilation shifted making it so those whop went threw the system did not k now enough to survive on their own having toi rely more on the government\ Vast povergty and decline 9in their poip 330,00 within 40 years it is 245,000 Some whites are simpathertic to natives but vast americans are to cought up in progress in what their country has gained npot what the native americans have lost iii. Industrializat
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