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HIS271 - Life in the Colonies (Lecture 3)

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Grant Brown

HIS271 - Life in the Colonies Wednesday, September 29 / 2010 th Anne Hutchinson  “A lonely exemplar in new born America of that freedom of thought, word, and action that women now accept as unthinkingly as the air they breathe” – Winnifred King Rugg  She thought the ministers in New England were focusing too much on a covenant of works  The laws of man were irrelevant to Anne  The Halfway Covenant (your status in the church mirrored your status in society). The covenant said you could inherit your status  However, as the community of New England grew, tensions increased  1640s = 20,000-25,000 people migrated to the Plymouth colonies  1700 = population of 93,000  The increase in population was due to 90% of people migrating were families Family Portraiture  Women married in their early 20s, which meant when they hit menopause, they gave birth to 10-30 children  Families brought size and stability  If you migrated to New England, it added 10 years to your life  Most of the people who migrated to New England were more skilled (doctors, lawyers, etc)  In the 1660s, the populations of New England and the Chesapeake were almost identical, which showed New England had more growth  Manufacturing and exporting of raw materials became the norm…more merchants  As the population grew in New England, more and more people moved away from the community centers, which is where the church was located  While prosperity was a sign of a colonies success, it caused anxiety on some of the leaders Three kinds of Colonies 1. Charter Colony  created by the charter of a king (ex. Hudson’s Bay Colony, Virginia Colony) 2. Proprietary Colony  a parcel of land was granted to an individual/group, and they decide the makeup/distribution of the land (ex. Pennsylvania, the Carolinas) 3. Royal Colony  Happened afterwards (ex. Virginia was originally a charter colony, but turned into a royal company mainly due to the Virginia Colony becoming bankrupt). In this case, the governor would be chosen by parliament Settlers began to see the need for something more centralized. They were thinking about transportation, how to regulate inter-colonial trade, how to handle criminal issues, etc New England Confederation  New England, Massachusetts, and Plymouth  Create a defense system to regulate inter-colonial trade, crime, etc  As they became more productive, they became more lucrative towards their supporters in England Laws to Regulate Trade  In the 1650s Parliament passes laws limiting trade with other European countries  Parliament passes the Navigation Acts: 1. The first act passed in 1651 and reenacted in 1660  Limits colonial trade to goods carried by English ships  Colonists can only export their goods to England or to English possessions 2. The second act passed in 1663  Subjected all goods sent from Europe to the colonies to English taxation 3. The third act passed in 1673  Imposed duties on costal trade within the colonies and appointed customs officers to enforce the Acts  These were followed by more active activity by the colonies  Brought Plymouth Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Parts of Maine, New Jersey into one union (central control) Sir Edmund Andros and the Dominion of New England  Destroyed the sense of political autonomy that characterized life in the colonies up to this point  Andros demonstrated a misunderstanding of the inter-colonial relationships/connections  Andros was an Anglican (so he had no sense of their religion), so he brought with him a strong military defense, actively undermined political institutions that were implemented by colonists, he put restrictions on courts, schools, etc, and to many it seemed like an arbitrary ruler ship The Glorious Revolution  William of Orange (married to Mary) invaded England, and James fled to France, leaving the throne empty  Produces in England a new bill of rights, and a limited monarchy  When word of the revolution reached the colonies, they were quick to react  This was felt in New Jersey, Maryland, New York, and New England Leisler’s Rebellion  The revolution was a turning point…we see a strong bond that exists between England and the colonies, but at the same time, it is seen as the beginning of the deterioration of the relationship The Salem Witch Trials  The trial captured a society in crisis (a society coping with social, political, and economic change)  1692, the trials begun  Basically, a group of girls (3 of them) who were practicing witchcraft, and fortune telling, but they became ill, and nobody could figure out what was wrong with them, so the three girls were eventually brought to trial  156 people were jailed, 20 executed, 19 hanged, and 1 was pressed  For the most part, these were single, middle-aged women, who had no children  Some were from the lowest levels of society, while others were from the highest levels of society  These women challenged gender norms  Finding Witches   These women embodied larger fears, fears about the breakdown of gender norms  Many found women were marrying
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