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Lecture

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History
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HIS280Y1
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09/11/2013 – Lecture One 23/11/2013 11:56:00 AM Themes 1. Nature of Chinese political, social and intellectual systems in imperial period 2. Relations with other people, especially nomads in the North 3. Popular rebellions and folk religions 4. Genders & the family across dynasties * key transformative roles during the imperial period China Today (People‟s Republic of China)  Usually people referred to where they were from based on their dynasties  Qing dynasty – Taiwan not included at the time  Qing dynasty wasn‟t Chinese o Ruled by the Manchurians (a foreign elite)  Qin Dynasty starts it all off, meaning it‟s the first „real‟ dynasty  Before 1200, no written records of anything  Archaeology (pieces that survived to be studied – urns, palatial sites, weapons etc.)  Also there was textual tradition and written histories?  These two sources tell very different stories o What really happened in pre-history vs. the BELIEF of what happened during this time  China ~5000BCE o Humans migrated from central Asia to China, usually towards rivers  ~10KYA = Neolithic age o agriculture, livestock, and pottery o stone tools for crops  after 5000 BCE o tons of isolated regional cultural centers  Bronze Age o Increase in agriculture which lead to an increase in settlements  Political and religious center = the palace  3000-2000 BCE o hierarchical settlements o archaeology = number of equally complex societies in this area and there was no way to distinguish which colony was Chinese and which was not  Shang Dynasty o Indecisive dates for dynasty due to the evidence found about it o Writing (&religion with calendar) system, chariots, palaces, all buildings = all aesthetically the same, division of labour, class system & religious hierarchy o Villages -> hierarchical settlements o Don‟t have any textual evidence for dynasties prior to Shang Dynasty o King – head of religious/political hierarchy but above that there was an ancestral hierarchy o Chinese & ancestor worship  The Chinese are actually scared shitless of their ancestors bc if you don‟t give them what you want, they will fuck your shit up  Zhou Dynasty have different point of view on ancestors o Spiritual and human hierarchy reflect each other o Religious warrior monarchy; below King, strong families with good religious ties o Beginnings of bureaucracy o Whenever the King or a noble died, several were decapitated in his honour  Terracotta Warriors  Shang di = God of Shang Dynasty  Xian and Zhou Dynasty work together to overthrow the Shang dynasty  Shang armies raised for certain purposes as opposed to being a standing army Textual Tradition  Records of Grand Historian  Oral, copying, etc. any means to pass along the message (which became a lot like the telephone game)  3 Categories (about ancient past) o Remote Antiquity Gods o Ancient Period Demigods o Present People  3 August Ones o credited for aspects of life o Fuxi = weddings o Shemong – medicine/agriculture o Huang Di – yellow empire -> government  5 Emperors o Yao o Shun o Yu the Great = father -> son hereditary system (Xia Dynasty) o Shaohao o Zhuanxu  Huang Di (2697 – 2597 BCE) o Don‟t take at face value o The mythic ancestor of Chinese o Dates – basis of the claim of how old Chinese history is  Textual history – past is shown as a Golden Age where it sounded pretty damn spectacular  Image of structure/culture as an unbroken line that lies at the pure origin  Expands inexorably at one point of history (Yellow Empire)  Mythic image – unbroken expansion  One of these cultures decide to nominate itself as the one true origin of history  Shang isn‟t the only society around o Regular contact with societies including the one that overthrew them (the Zhuo) 09/18/2013 – Lecture Two 23/11/2013 11:56:00 AM Zhou Dynasty (1046 – 256 BCE)  Guanzi (zen) = master Zhou Conquest of Shang and the Great Declaration  End of Shang Dynasty – crucial in Chinese history  Zhou founders trace themselves to the west of Shang  Migrated to Wei River Valley (central point of relations for China) – homeland of Zhou people  Zhou king (Ji) killed at the Shang court, later King Zhou of the Shang arrested King Wen (son of Ji) and imprisons him for 7 years; when released, he begins the process to overthrow each Shang king  Last king of Shang – Zhou, the First king of Zhou – Wu  King Wen got support and forces who were suffering form the tyranny of Zhou – dies and son Wu takes over and triumphs  Wu has advisors and Jiang Ziya and Duke of Zhou (brother)  Victory – proof that it was a deed of the will of heaven  Book (Classic) of Documents; first and last all pertain to Zhou, including the Great Declaration  The Great Declaration – what is it? o Isn‟t from the founding period of the Zhou dynasty (not a recording of what King Wu said) o Ceremonial reenactment executed years after the fact, therefore it was a piece of literature; never meant to be taken as a true document, it was meant for leisure o Clear heroes/villains, clear moral archetype overwhelming odds are overcome, leap into the unknown – BASIC BOOK o Shakespearean drama much  3 years after founding dynasty, Wu dies and Duke of Zhou acts as a regent for Wu‟s son and defends him against his other conspiring brothers  Duke of Zhou consulted with ancestors with the boiling of turtle shell o Offers himself in place of the sick King Wu (when he was still alive) because he didn‟t have the Mandate of Heaven (which gives you legitimacy to rule the throne) o BUT he was rewarded with authority and becomes model for all those assisting with power  Duke of Zhou has permission to rule and gains respect  Mandate of Heaven (Xian – replaces ultimate principal) o Signals approval of ruling house and signals whom receives this privilege (not alight respect) o Duke of Zhou gains heaven‟s charge through his virtue (and once virtue is lost, you lose the mandate and it gets passed on) o Basically the Mandate of Heaven is intended for people o There are signs of this mandate that need to be interpreted but by whom? Shows if the proof is in the pudding they can crack the code o Shang started virtuous but then turned corrupt and therefore was taken over by the Zhou  Dynastic cycle -> come and go/rise and fall according to a predictable pattern; gets revamped when new dynasty is in place o Nobody mentions this to the emperor because it makes one look like a disbeliever that their dynasty is infinite o Have limited life span and go through specific stages up until their collapse o Everyone knows it‟ll all turn to shit o Do the same things keep happening because everyone expects them too or is it a self-fulfilling prophecy The Western Zhou (1046 – 771 BCE)  Eastern capital – Chengzhou, Western capital – Fenghao  After conquest – garrisons to colonize surrounding regions and eventually they‟ll develop into regions  Zhou kings have nominal rulership st  1 emergence of a particular social group – group where Confucius belongs to and the ideology of this group is what he articulates  Zhou rulers put Guanzis all over their garrisons to secure their control  Gwo = state; & more of these are set up; aren‟t states in the modern sense, developed into cities surrounded by forests (where non-Chinese people tend to live, meaning not part of political/religious/spiritual system that binds the Zhou Dynasty)  When garrison cities start to look more like states, incorporate all surrounding areas & tax them, thus making them Chinese  Zhou dynasty generally divides into East and West (Western even further separated) get the development of bureaucratic government (with this dynasty)  Barbarians distinguished by virtue of how one behaves & NOT by their race  Zhou dynastic house loses ability to control surrounding states  Get attacked by barbarians and realized they‟ve stooped down to the same level of Shang irresponsibility that they loathed, but decide to flee to other capital in Changzhou Eastern Zhou (771-256 BCE)  After relocation, their effectiveness decreases and therefore nobody feels like they have to listen and thus, sovereign states battle each other even though Zhou still have legitimacy  Class functionaries emerge and this is what makes Chinese philosophy possible  Smaller states absorbed and thus their former functionaries no longer have jobs o Advise rulers of court rituals (barbarian vs. civilized)  part of professional values is that they disapprove of what‟s going on, and stamp this disdain onto the rest of Chinese history  nobody really pays attention to the Zhou anymore  larger states grow larger and therefore get into a competition with each other  beginning of Warring States period = 453 BCE (made offish in 403 BCE)  during this time (later in Han Dynasty) 5 Confucian Texts were composed and believed that he concocted it (but too unrealistic, so it was looked as a myth)  Guanzi, “Shepherding the People” o Compiled by several sources, most not even pertaining to the dude it‟s named after o Chi = major combatants for leadership o Duke = translated gong, ruler of one of these chis o Ended distinction between city dwellers and not; advocated taxation/stricter bureaucratic guidelines/talent and achievements in state service rather than aristocratic entitlement  Something like multi-state system in which each state is trying to prosper and try to mobilize their resources (whoever is most effective, is in a rather advantageous spot in their interstate competition)  Master Guan = legalist; but Confucians love him; he turned garrisons into states  Crucial development in China because people are thinking about how to run a state instead of how to maintain their privileges  If prince does what the people want, people will come and follow, if not, they will scatter  Guan – state thinker  No state is in position to defeat all other states and declare that they have the mandate of Heaven; legit multistate system  Guanzi doesn‟t have assumption of the mandate on his radar; still with the Zhou 10/02/2013 – Lecture 4 23/11/2013 11:56:00 AM 5 Fundamental Changes (major themes)  Han Dynasty – restricting borders o State access through local society  Qin Dynasty (897 – 361 BCE) o Records of Shun Qi (not many others, Bamboo Docs) o Started in Western Zhou period, not even as a state ally o Used originally for horses and cattle o Ruler of domain gave protection for King Zhou when he fled = Duke for his kindness  Becomes a guo (state) = 770 BC (now on a notable level); Duke of Qi is equal in rank  623 BC = hegemon of the Rong barbarians  Qin seen as semi-barbarian hicks; not taken seriously; had a seat at the table, but YOU CAN‟T SIT WITH US  Something is going on in Qin Dynasty that bodes ill for the rest o How did they take over? Organization o Solely for conducting of warfare  Agrarian taxation, registration of population  Change in origin of justice and warfare  Laws introduced for 1 time, inscription of laws (as taken by Confucians) -> direct attack on rights  Wars conducted now by specialists in technique and strategy  Governed by logic of winning/losing NOT of honour  Art of War (Zuanzi), Methods of Suma (maintains marriage military campaigns)  Wars based on infantry = ability to mobilize resources  361: Duke Xiao of Qin o Shang Yang initiates reforms o Most reforms have been enforced in other places (but one at a time) these were put into effect at once 1. Abolishes feudal ranks and hereditary offices 2. Organizes population into “5” & “10”s (families) – direct relationship with the ruler 3. Creates system of ranks based on military accomplishments and grain contributions 4. Organizes realm into “counties” (xian) and “commanderies” (jun, now “prefectures” o Institutionalized imperative to grow and expand  Farmer/soldier labourers  Ruler had more power vis-à-vis the nobles  Many peasant households moved to Qin -> fulfills one of Guanzi‟s ideas (in sense that he‟s ruling well and why people want to move) o Highly centralized state benefits  If you can contribute funds to central treasury you can increase in rank, subsequently merchants  Qin overlay military system onto agricultural/fiscal system THUS making focal point of the economy/society o Agriculture was the central profession  Military system (political system decreases); advancement is based on merit  how many heads you bring.. WHY  Several xian grouped into a jun  still in use in China today  Feudal system  centrally controlled bureaucratic system  Over the Qin who stuck through programs BUT it doesn‟t mean that by 338 BC that they‟d conquer China, just continual expansion was only means of keeping state going Expansion & Conquest 1. Qin – “army with society” rather than “a society with an army” 2. Expansion into Sichuan (311 BCE) and development of massive irrigation works 3. Expansion  Chu; annexation of Zhou (256/249 BCE) so BYE ZHOU 4. King Zheng (259-210 BCE); takes power by 237 BCE and final campaigns are during 228-221 BCE 5. Responses by other states (massive militarization/assassination schemes) Establishing Empire (221 – 209 BCE) 1. From “King” (Wang)  “Lord” (di)  “Emperor” (huang + di ) 2. Principal means a. Unification of weights and measures b. Standard currency c. 3 branch state: civil, military and inspection (censurate); for every person, there‟s a corresponding person in here to ensure that they‟re doing job d. Simplification and standardization of writing e. Extension “counties & commanderies” system f. Massive public works 3. Military campaigns, south to Fuijan and Vietnam, and north against nomadic tribes 4. “Burning of Books” (213 BCE) and “execution of scholars” (211 BCE) a. China has invaded Vietnam 14 times, never once successfully b. Confucians start gathering Qin Emperor to return back to Zhou principles (so annoyed, Lisi) c. Confucians scorn Qin Dynasty i. Banned quotations from Confucian (kept all copies or ordered them to be burnt) ii. Wanted elixir for immortality d. Lisi executed anyone who defied him (even those who spoke out against him) which thus lead to the Confucians hatred toward him Fall of Qin and Establishment of Han (209 – 206 BCE) st  Conspiracy of Li Si and Zhao Gao (1 eunuch) o Eunuchs are in position of extreme power because of their intimate interaction with the emperor and his family o Careful when you hear of eunuchs from the Confucians o Eunuchs influenced policy inappropriately (interfered with direct relationship)  Qin Shi Huang opposed execution of scholars, so Li Si and Zhao Gao forge documents to put the 2 nd son into power o Zhao Gao went against Li Si  Breakout of rebellions  Zhao Goa executed by the 3 emperor Consequences of Qin  Qin failed because they didn‟t follow Confucianism (1 theory)  Faults of Qin: couldn‟t make switch between mode of war and mode of governance (power of attack and rule)  Basic template for proper activities of state set by Qin  “hypocritization” of Chinese political thought; disapproval but simultaneous retention of legalism  Han Dynasty: Chinese political culture disavows itself  Legalism recedes as viable reason because it‟s built into material basis of Chinese State o No need to talk about it 10/09/2013 – Lecture 5 23/11/2013 11:56:00 AM The Han Dynasty (206-220) and the Northern Frontier 5 Major Transformations of Qin and Han dynasties (In the Qin)  transcendence of regional cultures by an imperial level state of agriculture  development of a political system theoretically based on an Emperor and his Ministers (In the Han)  development of a state sponsored canon of texts that justified the state‟s existence  demilitarization of interior of China  development of a pattern of rural life where state access to local society was mediated through wealthy “great families”  Warring States = what would the state be? o Dead issue; state was a central fact of social life that couldn‟t be wished away (Qin) o Certain transformations in Han were directly connected with the tensions in the Northern Frontier (will have infinite presence in course)  Influence for years to come The Fall of the Qin (209-206 BCE)  Surround emperor with eunuchs (castrated men who were hired to watch over children and woman  can become super powerful) Zhao Gao first civil eunuch  Conspired with Li Si to enstate the second son to take over the throne (forced to commit suicide)  2 nd emperor  Considered Zhao Gao his teacher  208 BCE – Li Si executed (with his entire family) to eliminate potential grudges o several rebellions break out; some launched by disgruntled nobles and some by peasants  46 days later, Zhao Gao surrenders to Liu Bang (founder of Han)  Qin Dynasty never listened to Confucian teachings and the involvement of eunuchs in courtly politics was a failure (according to the Confucians) o Crucial role in understanding the second transformation of this period st  Gaozu – supreme ancestor (name of 1 han Emperor) o Emperors have 3 different names  Personal name (what they have until throne) – Liu Bang  When they become emperor, they get a “reign name” (only allowed to refer to emperor by his reign name from this point forward  Ming changed that and changed it to one name  Temple name  after death, they assume place with the rest of the emperors (“Great” “Awesome” name here)  Usually referred by this named BUT this changes after the Ming Dynasty  Rebel leader that Zhao Gao surrendered peacefully to as long as his rebel army doesn‟t attack the people  After Liu Bangs arrival some shit comes in and ransacks the city have Liu Bang promises security; wins after 5 years  Early years of Han, guiding philosophy – Daoism more than Legalism, but not Confucianism o Later drives off to a kind of Confucianism but not until WAY later o All basic structures of Han state and all tasks that needed to be accomplished were set by a state that was organized by Legalism  Implicit – Confucian; explicit – Legalism  Gaozu o Started off as village constable “nobody” one of the 2 founders who actually started off from here (other founder of Ming) o His #1 wife – Empress Dowager Yu – most powerful figure in government until she died in 180 BCE  Real possibility that her relatives would take over BUT they were all executed after her death The Rise of Xiongnu (208-197 BCE)  Qin campaign under General Meng Tian (211 BCE)  Consolidation of Xiongnu under Modu (given name) circa 234 BCE – 174 BCE o Just as Qin fell, Modu launches own campaigns in southern China and consolidates power there before invading the Han (200 BCE) o Extracted major concessions from the Han; will send tribute in exchange for not being invaded  Receives silks, coin and women as tribute o Han has major need for 2 things:  Needs grain to support garrisons; taxes will increase for peasants in debt (& when can‟t repay back, they‟re sworn into families as indentured/slaves)  Need silks for peace (to send to Modu) which leads to the increase in merchants which thus makes them more $$ o Dealing with external threats leads to internal developments in China o After tribute arrangement (after 70 yrs) kept fragile peace, especially the final victory of state Emperor Wu (141-87 BCE) & Centralization  In the 130s and 120s BCE, many kingdoms are brought under central control and converted into commanderies (jun)  Resumption of wars against the Xiongnu  Establishment of the monopolies on salt and iron (113 BCE) and alcohol (98 BCE) *subject of debate  Elimination of aristocracy leads to the formation of a new ruling class, whose secure by: o Wealth o Marriage-ties o Government service  Bonds between Han court and other territories falter o Real threat that Han would devolve to several warring states o Many of these states were monopolizing and etcetera they could pose a serious threat to the Han  The conclusive victory of central Han court (w/ Emperor Wu)  Sometimes these states would fight amongst themselves which lead to their annexation by central state and stripped them of their aristocratic state  By 108 BCE, majority of fiefs don‟t exist  Series state monopolies developed, could only produce number of key items  130s – 108 BCE = rapid bureaucratic centralization o shift in policy thanks to Xiongnu  120s = Han position isn‟t precarious and therefore relaunches itself to Xiongnu o court needed uninterrupted access  121 – 119 BCE: major offensive  Xiongnu (pushed majorly into central China) o General looked at how as a cultural hero (expelled barbarians)  One kind of ruling class (Han aristocracy) eliminated o Privilege is not the route to social power  New ruling class starts to emerge; secured position by central state Don Zhong Shu (179-104 BCE) and the “Han Synthesis”  Decentralization knowledge  135 BCE – intellectual centralization  Han court sends out court to scholars to be tested on their knowledge and if they‟re smart enough, they get paid jobs in the court  boshi = broadly learned scholar  Confucians have home at the central court  Han-Confucian Synthesis (main founder Don Zhongshu) o Their Confucianism WAY different than the original o Wasn‟t interested in the natural world, more concerned in human behavior  Basic pattern that tied all levels of existence (Heaven, Earth and Man) and that they were manifestations o Yin and Yang + 5 Elements (wood, fire, water, metal)  Interrelationship between elements and Yin (female, dark, old, low Moon) and Yang *everything male, bright, young, high)  Each order of existence reflected each other  During Wu‟s reign, this increase was how nature/society worked and how they change over time  Confucianism decreased in popularity; didn‟t become an explicitly idea of the state until the Song dynasty Wang Man and the Xin Dynasty (9-23 CE)  Real power of court becomes something women can fight about  Many new elites tried to weasl their way in by any means possible  End of the 1 century BCE, elites in empire-wide network through these strategies (getting land and followers that can number in the 1000s – PROBLEM because loyalties are being spread out)  Serious fiscal issue because tax base is disappearing (influence of Emperor cannot reach everyone)  9 CE – Han Emperor dies and they want Wang Man to rule and create “new” dynasty o reforms that bring state back to Confucianism  Wang Mang was a very diligent Confucian o Reviled by Confucians because he was an usurper o Self image of Confucians – servants of power  Limitation of land household can own, no slavery, independent households sought to institute system of rural organizations based off of the well-field system  Rights of Zhou – agriculture organized through this system o Ministry of Heaven, ministry of Earth and a ministry for each of the seasons  Tough for Wang Mang because a series of disasters occurred that made concentration of Xin Dynasty impossible o Many refugees to Xiangdong province (state of Wu and Qiu)  Wang Mang suffers consequences he had nothing to do with; aboriginal rebellions increase o Yellow River shift it‟s course; careen wildly all over the place  Elite philosophical Daoism that spreads  “Red Eyebrow” Daoist rebellion (18 CE) = first one ever  guest families pissed off with Wang Mang for his reforms that‟d strip them of their privilege  Wang Mang REPLACED  Real power increasingly in hands of great families – recurrent theme Eastern (later) Han (23-220 CE) & Dynastic Decline  Eastern Han attempts to get rid of Xiongnu  Last decades of century, Xiongnu extremely pushed out o Now gone, but gives reason for nomads to still dissent against them  Wars too much for Han armies  Western part abandoned and that Chinese population migrate eastward and don‟t have to find refuge o Submit themselves to the great families, form basis of the warlord armies that‟ll lead  collapse of Han  Social instability/economic disruption = receptiveness of recruitment for the Yellow Turban Uprising 10/16/2013 – Lecture 6 23/11/2013 11:56:00 AM Popular Rebellions  Tai Ping – largest war in history until WWII o 300K killed in 3 days (Nan Jing)  Tai Ping – great peace/equality/leveling o 1 religious rebellion – Yellow Turban Rebellion (undergone by Daoist)  1 and last religious rebellions took ideas of great peace and equality  trajectory of Chinese history because of peasant linkage and religious systems  historical record written by non-egalitarian elites, 2 major dynasties ran by peasant egalitarians and rest overturned by them  problem of what the majority rebellions were about and how we know about them  Walter Ben quote: normal state of affairs – stability, order, know what‟s what etc. but when social order starts fading = OH THE HUMANITY o We just assume equilibrium  If talking about course of history, you begin with times that were fine and when things decreased  “breakdown” o Ie. Elites and China  Elites are generally those who wrote about their experiences during that time BUT IF we could get non-elites POV it could be very different of what was a bad time and what was good  Only written sources for rebellions before Ming Dynasty (1368) were written after suppression of rebellions by those who didn‟t like the rebels‟ goals th  19 Century – significant rebel movements challenge elite rule (have significant command to write down their movements and ensure their sources survive after their suppression)  movements  enlist support of Chinese elites (against corruption/taxation etc.  these strengthen said relationships because the officials aren‟t the problem); reform movements are different because blame is put on the paternalistic relationship  nothing more normal in Chinese history for poor people‟s lives to collapse and cause rebellion  social order – rich are happy and poor just accept the fact; things always shit for the poor  2 ways to look for popular rebellions: o Exceptional moments of social breakdown o Moments when the suckiness of being poor is expressed  People involved in rebellions won‟t always express why it sucks o Sometimes they place demands that just can‟t be met; usual strategy for the state  execute rebel leader and grant majority of the requests  Rebellion = ruler isn‟t doing something right o Sometimes peasant rebels make no demands (scares the elites shitless) and go on bloody rampage o Reformist movements (particular demands while keeping paternalism) vs. rebellions (no demands, basic bloodbath)  INCREASE AND DECREASE OF REBELLIONS ARE CENTRAL TO CHINESE HISTORY  Very few peasant rebels died of natural causes, but they often create alliances/reforms that wouldn‟t happen if it weren‟t for them  Peasants rebel on such a level to taint safety of the ruling class as a means to replace them  Trigger to bring down one imperial house with another (very rarely do peasant rebels turn leaders and the 2 times they did, these dynasties ended up not being peasant friendly)  When elites are threatened, majority fall in line fairly quickly to stand behind who will maintain their social dominance  Some elites displaced and killed = dynasty DONE but the rest find a way to maintain their high class despite their loss of power dynastically  Chinese gentry – long lasting, ~2000 yrs thru several challenges and social changes, and how the hell did they manage that? HUGE PUZZLE!  Distinction between rebellions is based on what kind of rebellion they are Daze Village Uprising (209 BCE)  Kicked off rebellions that eventually overthrew the Qin Dynasty  Either submit to law and face death, or rebel and face death = double ended sword, either sit and starve or die trying to bring cause/glory  During Wu Guang reign, 2 separate rebellions developed: o Green Forest Mountain Rebellion (based in these mountains) = famine & attacking out of desperation BUT were then turned to get the Qin Dynasty officials o Red Eyebrows Rebellion = repressing them required all resources of Qin Dynasty which led to the re-installment (temporary) of Han Dynasty BUT Red Eyebrows eventually surrender to future Han leader Popular Daoism in the Later Han  Throughout Eastern han, a non-millenarian version of Daoism spread throughout China  Normal people organize themselves around facts elites don‟t support their interests at end of which they rebel with a surprise to elites (thought nothing was wrong the whole time)  Qi – untranslatable BUT basically vital source of life o Breathing techniques/meditation  Daoism further developed potins/elixirs/rituals and had large gatherings adherence to Daoist priests in which they‟d mix their qi (orgies) o New element added – Classic of Great Peace who was revealed to some dude (there‟s a later version created without the fucked up elements)  End times come with return of a figure (Jesus) o In China  Buddhism and Kalpas (defined by succession of series of Buddha) o Groups within these traditions predicted the end of the world/millennium  Laozi undergone transformation from philosophies to a kind of divinity (who proudly appeared on earth as an avatar – classic transformations of Laozi) o Last one seen when Yellow Turbans launch revolt in 184 BCE o Daoists claimed that Buddha was one of them  5 Pecks of Rice – Laozi  most high Lord Lao  creepy eunuchs ran entire court (dissolving Han court) o court trying to secure resources (end up making things worse) o led to Daoist rebellion emergence 5 Pecks of Rice Sect  Sichuan province under celestial master Zhang Daoling (of Daoist church) o Zhang was a faith leader and spiritual leader  Faith healing practice required 5 pecks (10 liters each) to take part  a certain family either identified by their teachings or the protectors of some divine truth o grandson rebels and creates a new state (lasts 30 years until overthrown by Tao Tao)  incorporation of religious sect into government is great contrast to Yellow Turban Uprising  rebels associated with secret societies based on Daoist principles  if you can gather a large group, you can go off and create your own state and can successfully vanish without breaking laws o those separate communities are organizational base for rebellion (both militarily and spiritually) Millenarian Daoism & “Huang-Lao”  Zhang Jiao (General of Heaven), Zhang Bao (General of Earth), Zhang Liang (General of Man) o Led the militaries o Told followers that when the sky turned yellow it signified the end of the Han  Leaders of movement quickly killed o Early form of guerilla warfare – amorphous threat (happening during time when court is basically paralyzed)  Han Dynasty generals suppress rebellion and gain self-governing powers which turn themselves into the war lords that‟ll later take over o Common during the 19 century  With underground sects (dogs) you can cut off the heads and they‟ll still survive o Passed down despite illegality  Why religions characterized by 2 forms? o Elite version vs. popular crazy dark version  How do we know the amount of troops they had? o Unconcerned with how they appear to Confucians so everything you learn about them could be a pack of lies = they‟re secret societies (Daoists)  Peasant messages repeatedly set in motion that wouldn‟t have happened had they accepted their fate 10/23/2013 – Lecture 7 23/11/2013 11:56:00 AM From the Han to Northern and Southern Dynasties th  Romance of 3 Kingdoms (14 century)  Chinese history exists in contemporary history through mediation of popular stories through heroes and villains in various forms of media  Last decades of Han Dynasty – very alive in contemporary Chinese culture/awareness o Red Cliff – defeat of Tsao Tsao‟s army  Warlords and officials – coalition to get rid of Do Zhou in fear that he‟ll usurp the empire  Coalition diminishes and leaders fight amongst themselves, Do Zhou assassinated  Tsao Tsao – most popular and powerful warlord o 213 – Duke of Wei after he defeated that territory and given fiefdom o 215 – defeats 5 Pecks of Rice group o control of court; goes from Duke  Prince (Huan = King) o organized barbarians/nomads and divides them into 5 branches o 220 – dies  Tsao Pi succeeds and establishes Tao Wei Dynasty (end of Han Dynasty)  Liu Bei – outbreak at Yellow Turbans, forms volunteer army to suppress them; where he makes pact to live and die together (Liu Bei, Guan Yu and Zhang Fei = epitome of Chinese brotherhood) o Confucianism thinks it‟s important (only symbiotic relationship)  Liu Bei doesn‟t agree with Tsao Pi‟s leadership and goes to Sichuan province o 221 – secedes with Shu Han Dynasty (Han infinitely here)  Sun Quan o Building administrative power in Delta o Was chill with everything until Tsao Pi wants his son to come over, but he‟s like fuck that, and declares himself emperor  Siu Ma family o Seizes power in 249 which leads to warlord coalition everyone feared o Held court in Wei Dynasty until 265 CE o 265 Su Ma Yen establishes Jin Dynasty (emperor of this dynasty) o Emperor Wu (symbol  marshall)  Lots of resettlement at this time  280 CE – Jin Dynasty conquers Wu Dynasty and China is briefly united again from 280-360 CE  Emperor Wu prompts major responsibilities to immediate family o War of 8 Princes (after Wu‟s Death) between them all that lasts 15 years o Mass exodus from 5 Pecks of Rice Sect  Sichuan province and set up Great Perfection (60 years)  304 CE = Wu Hu Uprising (5 Tribes) [304-316] o launched against Jin by nomadic tribes o why are we submitting to you if you can‟t get your own shit together?  Han Jiao Dynasty (first of 16 Dynasties)  Jin retreat after Wu Hu uprising loss o Wei River Valley – effective defense against Wu Hu armies  China divided thanks to the Wei River (into North and South) o Northern Wei and Southern Qi still exists TODAY  Cultural divide between Beijin and Shanghai o Lasts for 250+ years (which is all of US history..)  Eastern Jin survives until 420 CE, when Southern begins  Most rulers of 16 Kingdoms of nomadic tribal origin and not really lasted long or amount to anything  North = rough/militaristic/nomadic traditions  South = refined/sophisticated/cultivated Elite Culture in the South  Many families who were part of Jin court went to Delta and had endogamous relations  *9 Ranks (Tsao Tsao but maintained throughout until Jin took it with them) – social hierarchy (authoritative)  “impartial” judges evaluated delegates and put them off to appropriate positions  very meritocratic  granted hereditary access to entry level positions (corresponds with rank fathers held)  all Chinese history before was reserved to super elite men (didn‟t think family lives were worth writing about) o important politically  family – historical constant (unconditional love = “inert fact”)  family structure and feelings that come with are historical phenomenon o official families were concerned about quality of their children which is why incest was popular  constant intermarriage today decreases in quality but they didn‟t know that then  aristocracy  being able to trace lineage for long time = major privilege; political power depended on it  forming alliances based on kinship = more control on women (arranged marriage) o elite families would compile extreme genealogies in families (traced through male descent and then mention marriages to noteworthy families  think Real Housewives)  if one branch of family underperformed, they could be written out of the family genealogy (not descent defined kinship; also success; not just biological terms bu
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