his312 mar 12 3/12/2013 12:04:00 PM
Radicalism and repression in Canada’s inter-war period
-immigrants working for industrial frontier
-immigrant workers in urban industries
-active in socialist labor movements.
Employees were looking for higher wages. For job security. Improvement on
their general condition. For equitable society. Fundamental change to the
current capitalist system. Call this foreigners dangerous foreigners. Viewed
as dangerous because they were foreign speaking and alien ideas. Could not
be Canadian because of their background and politics.
Threat to production, profit
Concern for industry
Pressed government to act
State repression fueled by media panic, fear being seen in the main stream.
All of these took place being considered repression. Protest, striking activity.
State sanction. It was necessary to do sth.
Exceptional state. : state of emergency.
wwI and repression
-heightened british nationalism
-war measures act. Everyone had to do their part for effort. Who fell outside
this is considered as suspcision. To ensure homeland security. Give
government the ability to pass legislation without the approval of
parliament. The extra power to allow them to engage in politics.
-dominion police surveillance: strikes were legal. Anyone who oppose
description is considered condemnation of the war.
-press censorship -enemy aliens: people that were at war with Canada, they had to registered.
80000 registration. Considered as dangerous. 6000 of Euclidean’s. they
wanted their self condemnation.
-P.C. 2384 and political policing. Give government the power to outlaw any
organizations they view as unlawful. The boundary stretches in the sense
ethnical organization could be out-lawed. Radicalism were formed. The
government were essentially doing was policing the governemtn.
1919-year of revolt
winniperg general strike, no job were given to the citizen when they were
returning home. Shut down the city for 6 weeks. Very little violence. Most of
the violence came from the government to put down the strike.
-sympathy strikes in Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal, Halifax
-section 97 a) and b) of the criminal code passed. Official code for what
happened in 1919. And section 41 of the immigration act. These measure do
as. Section 97. Ordering the counsel. Same as p.c.2384. force were never
defined in the section. Section 41 giver the government to deport someone.
-foreigners harassed. Being attacked. Difficult time
why did some immigrants become socialists
no security. Job that nobody else wanted to take.
-racism. Perception. Racism against the bosses.
-police repression. When you try to strike, the police put it done. Powerless
to do anything to change.
-fellow community members active socialists or communists. Experience
from the Europeans immigrants. They had idea about what can be done to
change the situation.
-1917. Embodied socialist in Canada.
Ethnic minorities and socialism
-ukrainians, east Europeans jews. They were well-organized. Germans,
Russians. Same sort of division in those communities. Like orange order.
Where there is cultural transplant. These groups also formed poles. Formed
different kind of organizations. -left minority develops
-some socialists upon arrival, others; on the job/ a cultural transplant.
Left-wing political parties/ethnic minorities
They were interested in ways of exposing their cultural. These movements
were a effort to make it international. United with other groups. Not always
possible. They were still divided.
-immigrnat socialist organization leads to
-solidarity and internationalism.
Social democratic party of Cnaada, 1911 and active to 1920
-leaders English, Canada British
Membership-Ukrainian, largely ethnic.
-ran candidate in elections and occasionally won municipal/provincial level.
Viewed along the line of Marx. There could be a socialist world. This was
-class analysis of capitalis, imagine a socialist future
never a large party. Government heavelly targeted them. Suffered as a
repression in the WWI
communist party of Canada 1921
-left inspired, success of Russian revolution 1917
ties to communist international. Would send delicates to Moscow. See what
could be done to shape the new world. Lots of the members were
immigrants. They welcome immigrants. From all kinds of all jobs. Language
branches. Designed to help organize those ethnics communities.
-published newspapers in many languages. The newspapers they publish
were much like the hall, means of having ethnic workers. Could consume
politics. Try to build up industrial unions.
-ran some candidates in elections, sometimes won -active in trade unions.
Ethnics socialist and trade unions
-trade unions mostly craft unions-unwelcoming to foreigners
-industrial workers of the world est, 1905 in Chicago
-active in west
-one big union
-supported foreign workers
-strikes, solidarity, and the general strike
-worker control of industry
-target of repression/weak outside of lumber industry by 1920s.
move into more general strike. Bring capitalism done would be their
strategy. They never really recovered after 1920s
worker’s unity league 1930-35
a creation of CPC
organize unemployed into associations
-organize the unorganized into labour unions
-mostly ethnic minorities
-welcomed all workers, bring all individual trades into one.
-some success, Moscow shut it down 1935. Responsible for 1/3 of all the
strikes in Ca