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Lecture 5: The Irish

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University of Toronto St. George
Ian Radforth

Lecture 5: The Irish -Ireland: a land divided -pre-famine immigration, 1816-1845 -reasons for leaving: who? -pushpull -settlement:: men, women, families (incl. children) -institutions: the Loyal Orange Lodge (the Orange Order) -the Roman Catholic Church (RCC) *to hand in primary source essay, 4 pgs, 15% of grade -will be getting Turnitin instructions soon -largest number of arrivals, after 1815 were the Irish to British N. America -participated in canal bldg in the 1830s-1840s, before the railroad era -stereotypes of Irish being prone to crime and alcoholism -of being poor and Catholic -more then half the Irish were the Protestant Irish migrating to Canada -settled in the countryside -ppl who went to the US were of the middling ranks, could finance their own immigration -settled in cities -Ireland, Engs oldest colony, since 1169 -1600s: Eng planted Scottish Presbyterians in n. Ire, Ulster, as a way to strengthen their control over Ire, as previously had been pretty lax -still under Brit. Rule today -sharp distinctionstensions betw. local Catholics and new Scot. prots -then imposed an Ango-Irish elite, who originated in Eng, well connected to govtthe crown, given positions of power, legal systempoliticsreligion -the Church of Ireland, Anglican church in Ire -so 3 groups -Scot Presbyterian -Anglo-Irish Anglican elite -Irish Catholics -their troublestensions transplanted to Canada -pre-famine immigration, 1815-1845 -famine starts in 1845 -sig. numbers came to Canada, from Nfld, to s. Montreal, N. Brunswick -were usu. the founding group locally, and settled down -were the middling sort, would finance their own transport, and set up farms in Canada -the real poor in Ire would go to the mill towns of Eng, cheaper to get to -largest group were the Protestant, the Presbyterian and the Anglo-Irish -pushed out cause they feared for their prospects for the future, and bad eco. conditions cause of changes to the rural eco. like the decline of the linen hand loom industry and less demand for hand woven fabrics, starting in 1820s, pressures against the Protestants, cause till then the Catholics had no legal rights, couldnt sit in juries, but then concessions granted to the Catholic majority by Brit govt, now the Protestant minority felt vulnerable -pulled by land, free or reasonably cheap, to set up a family farm was the goal of the majority, sometimes didnt have enough moneyresources to set up the farm so income made up by occupation pluralism, or flexibility in
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