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HIS 377 Lecture 1 Week 1 January 10th 2013 - Introduction.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Professor Candace Sobers

HIS 377 – 20 Century American Foreign Relations Lecture 1 Week 1 January 10 , 2013 Introduction o Key Themes: o Expansion o Power o Order and Disorder o Uniqueness o Approaching the Study: o Ideas matter in foreign relations o Ideas steer foreign policy o Influences: o President, intellectuals, NSC, JCS, State, Congress o From Colony to Nation: o Idea of the city upon a hill, 1630  Colonies are fairly new at this point  He believes that the American colonies have God’s favour • Puritan morals  The world is watching to see if this political experiment works  Parts of this work are used by Kennedy and Reagan o The colonists survive and begin to thrive o Tensions begin to brew between the American colonists and the British crown  Over-taxation o Thomas Paine writes Common Sense  Can’t believe an island rules a nation o A revolution breaks out – Americans break off o Thomas Jefferson wants Canada to join the “EMPIRE OF LIBERTY”  Important because Jefferson is calling America an empire  Believes this will be a moral empire that people will want to join  He also believed in manifest destiny – America needed space to reach its potential o The revolution ends, and the US gains its independence in 1783  Sends shockwaves through the international world – revolution had succeeded o The Americans like to take credit for starting the modern world (especially in regards to politics / nationalism) o From Nation to Continent: o Three main ways to gain land, fighting, negotiating and buying o The Americans push west fighting the Natives along the way o Louisiana Purchase in 1803 o War of 1812  Introduced American nationalism – The American identity o Transcontinental Treaty (1819 o Mexican American War (1846) o Alaska Purchase (1867)  A large question about whether or not this should be purchased, but the American’s believed that they would own the entire continent eventually o Manifest destiny becomes popular around this time o The Americans begin to fear the closure of the American frontier  Famous Fredrick Jackson Turner speech describing the significance of the frontier  He claims that America became as strong as it is because of the frontier – it disciplined and trained them to be where they are – the hard work structured them and helped set up the position that their society was in  The belief that if the frontier closed, Americans would become weak o The Manifest Destiny  Belief that America had its own unique role to play in the world o Encounters with Empire: o The US confronting their own imperial ambitions  What it takes for the US to be an empire? o Imperial Spain is on the decline  Lost Louisiana  Lots of Central America  They still have Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines • Cuba and the Philippines want Spain out o The Monroe Doctrine  Belief that the Americas belonged to the Americans – any attempt on their continent would be a violation of their sphere  James Monroe was rejecting European intervention  The Americans were extending their security perimeter to the entire Western hemisphere  There is a debate over whether the Monroe Doctrine was a show of strength or weakness o Large Policy (1890)  Belief that if the Americans want to be a world power – that they need a dominant navy  Also suggested the creation of a canal to link the East and West  Also suggested the annexation of Hawaii, Cuba and the Philippines o Economic Concerns:  Wanted Cuba to become a slave, sugar based economy  By 1896 they have over 50 million invested in Cuban sugar, and bring in 100 million worth of product  Spain replaced the Cuban governor with a man
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