HIS377 Lecture Notes Jan 30 , 2014
I. FDR, “The Juggler”
• Democrat from NY
• Cousin to Theodore Roosevelt
• Longest serving US president (19331945)
• Reelected4 times
• Known for a fluid, personal style of diplomacy
II. The Good Neighbor Moves In
• Hoover’s Latin American Goodwill Tour (1928). Works so well they will
commission Disney for other war effort promotions later on.
• Nicaragua (192121932)
o Jose Santos Zelaya
Gets on the bad side of Roosevelt
Starts a PanAmerican intervention/federation. So they decide
he has to go (that is the Americans decide this).
o Smedley Butler: marine well known. Becomes one of the biggest
critique of interference of Americans within south and central America
o Augusto Cesar Sandino: gets killed and is the root of the sandonitaz
o Anastasio Somoza Garcia: killed Sandino and will run Nicaragua for a
while later as a corrupt politician
• Clark Memorandum (1930)
• PanAmerican Conferences (1933 and 1936)
o Gerado Machado: terrible leader.
o Sumner Welles: finance person from America that comes to try to
figure out economy. But they have the good neighbor policy now so
they don’t want to send army in but want to change the leader.
o Ramon Grau San Martin: so they get a new general in. and they
support the other party. Except he starts to do things like nationalize
the American banks. And he also ends the Plad amendment. So they
decide he has to go as well.
o Fulgencio Batista: the US puts him there to replace them.
III. From Neutrality to Belligerency
• While there are absolute disasters of national cooperation, there are
attempts to create and foster good relations: but it is tenuous.
• The Road to War:
o Sino Japanese Tensions
*1915: 21 demands.
China and Japan have a bad history
1 The area of China known as Manchurian they have been
debating for a long period of time
The Japanese have some concession already in Manchurian
so they already have some Japanese soldiers. So they plant a
bomb there on the railway line and then accuse Chinese of
planting it as a premise to take over whole area of land.
In response to this:
Stimson Doctrine (1932)
• Nonrecognition of territories acquired by force
• Respect the Open Door and Chinese sovereignty
• Japan violated NinePower Treaty—naval arms
As a result of this, the league of nations does not recognize
that Japan has taken claim of the Manchurian area, and as a
result allows them the chance to eave the League of Nations
And Japan will now invade China completely
Japan has also violated an international treaty completely
Mukden (Manchurian) Incident (1931)
Stimson Doctrine (1932)
Second SinoJapanese War (1937)
Greater East Asian CoProsperity Sphere (c. 1940)
o ItaloEthiopian (Abyssinaina) crisis (1935)
Haile Selassie Emperor of Ethiopia (fiercely independent
and proud country as a result). Rastafari’nism comes from him.
The Lion is supposed to be him.
So Italy decides to invade it so that they can get colonies—
for national prestige
Both Italy and Ethiopia are part of the league of nations
The league of nations investigates invasion twice and
decides not to blame either
While Ethiopia never surrenders it is occupied by Italy
o Spanish Civil War (19361939)
Guernica (April 1937)
After the Spanish monarchy is deposed there is a battle
between left and right wing parties with regards to how Spain
will now be run. The strange thing about the civil war is that
the names are different. So the left end—republicans and
believe to be fighting battle between terrene and democracy.
And the right wings are nationalist fighting between western
civilization and godless communists.
Appeals to the league of nations to mediate
2 But league of nations does not get involved and tell
external groups to not get involved either
So they look for international brigades. They get 18,000
volunteers from different countries (the right wing this is)
And the republicans (left wing) get the soviet unions
Right wing side: Francisco Franco—and get help from
The decide to use Spain as a testing route for one of their
military technologies—aerial carpet bombing—the first time
they ever use it.
They used a random down in Guernica—no strategic
1,500 people died (civilians)
the crisis in