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HIS388H1 (6)
Lecture 3

Lecture 3.doc

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Nathalie Fournier

Foreign policy of 2 republic show France’s wider impact on world Napoleon 3 saves Pope from Republicans, Save Ottomans from Russia, Suez Canal, Italian Unification, Franco-Prussian War th 19 century was stable time in Europe, no world war th - However in global picture, it was not that stable, mid-19 century was very unstable - Three great crisis in 1860s o Taiping Rebellion 1850-64 o American Civil War 1864-65 o Crisis of German Unification - Napoleon had fateful foreign policy o Frame of Reference was Congress of Vienna system of 1814,  It was restraining France’s foreign affairs o Napoleon took more activist role than July Monarchy o Wanted to make France Diplomatic Arbitrator of Europe and World - Instead he made foreign policy disasters and paved way for German unification - One theme in his foreign policy, he wanted support of the Catholic Church - Secondly he was Bonaparte, he had to be involved in war and win some prestige glory to live up to his name o However, wanted to avoid his uncles mistakes  Which were alienating England, and not truly liberate oppressed nations of Europe - Napoleon had to challenge Congress of Vienna system which meant challenging Russia and Austria- 2 most conservative states - 1849 Italian revolutionaries tried to set up Republic in Rome at expense of pope o Napoleon sent 10,000 French soldiers to save Pope against Republicans  He did this to win support of Catholics and to reduce Austrian influence in Italy o Napoleon tried to solve Roman Question  Restore constitutional rule and grant liberal rights • However pope was uninterested and was conservative, other powers were uninterested in helping Napoleon solve the question - Eastern Question – Ottoman empire was sick man of Europe, 1820s-30s it was on brink of collapse o What should powers do about Ottoman empire? - Winner in these political disputes was Russia, treated Ottoman empire as buffer zone o Russians claimed to be protector of Christians living in Ottoman empire o France had interest in trading with Ottoman empire, - Napoleon saw Russia as chief guarantor of international order so he had to undermine them - Picked fight with them over religious issue o He promoted Catholic church over orthodox church as guardian of Jerusalem  He did this to challenge Russia - Ottomans enjoyed playing off France and thus encourage Napoleon - Napoleon sent Charlemagne and steam ships to Constantinople to impress Ottomans - Russia’s response, since this was their traditional role, provoked the British who were afraid Russia was trying to break up Ottoman empire o British sent fleet to join French Fleet  Napoleon thus made working partnership with British, doing what his Uncle couldn’t - France and British attacked southern Russia in Sevastopol, Crimean War - French army in Crimean War was twice as big as British war o French Musket gave them decisive advantage over Russia - Having captured Sevastopol Napoleon won a war - Christians in Ottoman empire were now under international guardianship rather than solely Russia - Russia lost prestige in war, Britain was distracted from European continent, Prussia appeared to be weak and irrelevant, Austria irritated everyone by remaining neutral o Napoleon went away from war as arbitrator of European Diplomacy  However nobody trusted Napoleon - At peak of diplomatic influence, he had project of Suez Canal o It was begun in 1859 by French company directed by de Lesseps o Finished in 1869, triumph French technology and organizing.  Boosted French prestige in Middle East - While building canal he intervenes in Italy - Italian nationalist, Orsini, failed assassination on Napoleon o In 1859 Napoleon participated on Risorgimento, Italian Resurgence  He found ally in Italy with Piedmont run by Emilio Cavour • Napoleon and Cavour met in Plombieres and made secret treaty o Drive Austrians out of Italy o Piedmont gets northern Italy o Plomplom marries Piedmont daughter  Unite Italy, but not too much, make them French Satellite states o France would get Nice and Savoy  Things however don’t work  Piedmont start war with Austria, French intervene, however Napoleon gets cold feet and signs treaty with Austria and Prussia - Piedmont used revolutions in southern Italy as excuse to unite rest of Italy - France gets Nice and Savoy, Rome remains under French control, Italy united under Piedmont and not Pope o Napoleon inadvertently created new great power on France’s southern border - British were happy with Italian unification, but they were critical of Napoleon’s control over Nice and Savoy, alarmed by French Navy and France’s influence in middle east o This provoked invasion scare in Britain o Trends alarmed British liberals - Cobden and John Wright to solve this problem make free trade treaty with France which diffuses British and French tension - 1860’s was period of great free trade with Britain and France - Free trade can however also lead to imperialism - British and French enforced free trade on China, to open its ports to Western merchants o British claimed the right to sell opium in China o British and French sent joint military expedition to China to force them to comply  During this campaign they looted Chinese Imperial Summer Palace - While this was going on Napoleon also ventured into Indo-China - In 1864 Napoleon declared that Southern Vietnam was French Colony - Britain and France also cooperated for Mexico, Free trade was again justification o Context was American civil war o North was supported by European liberals and radicals since it seemed to be progressive side fighting against slavery  Napoleon and British president however supported South, since they wanted to keep America divided and open markets for British and French - While Civil war was in progress Britain and France intervened in Mexico to force them to pay debts o French went further than British and inspired by Suez Canal he wanted to create canal linking Atlantic and Pacific oceans o France was also interested for ideological reasons which were flawed and unrealistic but accepted as normal  Many French saw Mexico as Ottoman empire of new world • France should protect Mexico from United States o For French, they believed that Latin race needed king or monarchy to ensure social and political stability - Napoleon and Eugene dreamed of making Catholic empire in Mexico o They
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