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Jane Abray (16)
Lecture 12

Lecture 12 Oct 21.docx

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Jane Abray

October 21, 2010 Lecture Outline: Witchcraft and it Times: The Long Reformation Tries to deal with the coincidence in time of witch hunts and reformations – are there causal links? Long Reformation: process of change in Western Christian church -Western Christianity 15 thto 17 thcenturies - Nider interested in the reform of his own Dominican order (early 15 th century) - Begins with a feeling among clergy (like Nider) that the western church is falling away from original purity, that it is becoming corrupt, reform institutional church, especially the clergy and regular clergy (monks and nuns) - Originally it was a top down movement – believed clergy are superior Christians- laity will reform as a result - Regular clergy & Papacy – reform - Papacy weakened – popes not of highest moral qualities and so something much be done to reform Christian Church - Begins with clergy criticizing themselves- laity hears = clerical corruption spreads out of clergy to laity where it mixes with old rivthries between clergy and secular powers - 16 century- troubles - What starts as institutional reform starts to involve doctrine and reform of whole Church and LAITY- reformation of lay and clerical morality - 1. Reformation of institutional church - 2. Reformation Of doctrine - 3. Reformation of clerical -Reformation of institutional church and its clergy; calls for doctrinal change; the reformation of lay morality -Luther on faith, grace, and scripture; simplification of religious requirements; the Evangelicals/Lutherans - Luther argues Christianity has been burdened by generations of human inventions piling on until you can barely see Christ’s simple truth - Faith, Grace, and Scripture- what matters according to Christ - Not about doing good works, it is belief in Christ! - Gods free gift of grace saves, scripture is the only reliable authority for Christians - Scripture only talks about two sacraments - Says a lot created by crafty Italians – - Work translated into Latin – more read, ideas spread far and wide, printed - Within Holy Roman Empire- particular interest in towns and cities where people demand change- new evangelical churches emerge in towns - New emphasis on teaching and preaching - Rome: in awe- see Western Christianity fragmenting -fragmentation: the end of the “big tent” of late medieval Christianity - Many internal debates about doctrine and theology - Different tendencies pull apart and become separate Churches: - All differ - Switzerland, Netherlands, England, Scotland, France – Lutheran – we lump together with Calvinist = Protestant (German evangelicals Diet 1529 who protested against German parliament) -Switzerland: Zwingli and Calvin (Geneva); the Reformed/Calvinists -Lutheran (Evangelical) + Calvinist (Reformed Christians) collectively called Protestants -Anabaptists, neither Protestant nor Catholic, and without territorial churches  heavily prosecuted, leadership targeted, more trained theological leadership killed off, movements tend to become more fundamentalist or literalist in the reading of the bible Anabaptist not Protestant because they believe in the freedom of the will, believe in God having before the beginning of time assigned people a spiritual fate - like Catholics you can choose to be a Christian and therefore be saved! - reformed Catholicism, Council of Trent, Jesuits, counter-reformation Institutional churches developed by Protestants and Catholics – princes identify with all but Anabaptists (do not acquire territories where state is safe because they reject state apparatus) - Catholics too leave old Medieval Church- leave the big tent- Catholic Reformation - Many remain loyal to papacy but does not mean there is not change within papal camp, there is change - Drive to further Christian education of laity gains momentum by later 16 thcentury, Protestants too – boosted by better education for clergy, more preaching, power of the papacy is also rebuilt within Roman Catholicism - A lot of this reform work is codified in the councils of Trent (middle of 16 thcentury) institutionalizes a restatement of core-catholic statements challenged by Anabaptists and protestants - Another reformation of catholic – new orders, monastic, friars - Society of Jesus- Jesuits are most important- they are both a sign and demonstration of the success of the Catholic Reformation and at the leading edge of the Catholic reformation to beat back at the gains the Protestants made- reverse spread of Protestantism – win people back to papal church – goes on into 17 thcentury - Vast upheavals do not happen peacefully Wars: Switzerland, 1520s and early 1530s - Peasant war 1524-25- mass rising against secular and clerical land lords- pronounce overtones- Catholics blame on Lutherans - May have involved several hundred thousand people- tens of thousands died - Repression was savage Holy Roman Empire, 1540s, 1550s, 1618-1648 - Large scale wars - Partially connected to reformation France: intermittent civil war from 1562 to 1590s - Catastrophic - In part about religion – pin French Catholics against Huguenots but also about territorial rivalries between families th - France has a king with real power at beginning of 16 century – King staunch Catholic Netherlands: 1560s-1648 - In part about religion, in part about long struggle of northern part to escape Spanish power (100 years’ war) - British isles acquired English Civil War, 1640s - Religious and political aspects All mix secular politics with confessional rivalries Result: the modern western Christian churches, aka denominations or confessions, ends around 17 thcentury – creates these modern denominations But who cares? – Levack struggles with this question for good reason which has to do with historiography of reformation and witch-craft Significance of the Reformations for Witch-hunting - Tries to show a connection: continuing fear of Devil, stirring up fears in people’s minds and hearts, projection of anxieties on scapegoats such as witches, efforts by both Protestant and Catholic clergy to eradicate superstition, and also talks about emphasis on responsibility of secular rulers to protect Gods honor, talks about the tendency to pull passages out of the bible that line up with demonologists and preaches about them, relationship of confessional rivalry/violence Levack emphasizes: new kinds of spirituality, fear of the Devil, doubts about personal salvation, anxiety projected on to witches; efforts by both Catholic and Protestant clergy to diminish lay “superstition;” responsibility of secular rulers to protect God’s honor; Bible and devils/witches; confessional rivalry and religious violence + witch-hunting - Levack is a practicing historian – he provides information from previous historians- feels obliged to have chapter on relations between reformation and witch hunts but in fact he is trying to get beyond that and that the connections may not be with the reformation as such but may be ongoing problems of Christianity and writing about evil and causes- how do we protect ourselves from the devil and evil in this world. -historiography (the way we have written about the reformation) of the reformations through 1960s/1970s - denominational, political, intellectual - Last quarter of 20 thcentury reformation history has been denominational- Calvinists right about Calvinists, etc. which preserves rivalries - Written by people interested about politics and Christian doctrine in reformation -historiography of the witch-hunt
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