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Lecture 13

LEcture 13 October 26.docx

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Jane Abray

HIS389H1F Lecture: October 26, 2010 Demonology from Malleus to Mather Introduction 1960s-1990s scholarly work on witchcraft was focused on the trial records. Social history was the big thing. A lot of minute local work on manuscript records… Not a lot of attention paid to demonology, fun of working with records people have not looked at for hundreds of years. - Historians have paid more attention to demonologists and what drove the trials. Trying to pull out common features of demonological tracts and differences…. - We know the demonologists: those writing about witchcraft, began prior to printing press, Ex: Nider, Formicarius- Dominican Ex: Tholsan, In Order that the Errors of the Magicians and Sorcerers be Made Evident (1430s) Serious writing about demonology was monopolized by people like Nider and Tholsan (university educated men, theologians, lawyers, eventually medical doctors, write in Latin, vernacular, occasional territorial ruler – Gianfresco Pico della Mirandola 1523) - James VI – demonology originally written in lowlands Scots Exchanges among university educated produce the elaborated concept or cumulative: - The “cumulative concept / elaborated concept”: demonology builds up, the idea is that it builds up until consensus or common package – the devil tempts humans, the devil and humans make pacts, humans travel long distances by supernatural means to sabbath and witches do evil = well defined by 15 century - Definition mostly in Latin - Vernacular definitions – Latin translated into vernacular – city chronicles Hans Frund in the Valais- chronicle of witches in Valaid region in 1428 – from chronicles goes to broadside news papers Martin Le Franc, Le Champion des Dames- vernacular works non-fiction intended partially for entertainment. “The Champion of Ladies” followed by other poems, romance fantasies… - Stuart Clark’s Thinking with Demons uses a bibliography of primary sources more than a thousand types- avalanche – 700 pages to analyze this great out pour of treatise on demonology – arguing role of witchcraft as modernizing of science, organization of state, history – Clark does it in 700 pages - Out of fashion in 18 century Periodization 1. 1430s-1520s- Writing and publishing Consensus on key components Areas of disagreement Grillando, de Spina, de Bergamo - Di spina does not think witches can fly- he thinks it is an illusion, travel to sabbath is just some kind of dream the devil puts into peoples heads, it is an illusion - Kramer and Sprenger interested in guilt of woman, others do not care about this issue including early trial judges - Some writers Sprenger and Kramer, Dominicans, de Bergamo follow Aquinas on how succubus demon can take man’s semen – Franciscans more sceptical - Time of cumulative concept being elaborated, witchcraft is real, devil tempts, maleficia real do happen, sabbath is real, key point is to make a pact with a devil is apostasy makes any Christian into a heretic- general consensus – papal bull- churches fight against witchcraft requires support of secular courts - First phase of demonological writings sets the setting - Pact- so important, foundation of witches power to do evil - Sabbath so important because it suggests a movement, a counter-church, group rebellion against personhood, menace to secular authorities, army of Satan - Sabbath suggests a movement of conspiracy - A lot of disagreement and agreement - Sabbath- Nider interested but not malleus authors - Question of procedure in lay courts? – becomes an issue… how to conduct a secular witchcraft trial? 2. 1520s-1560s A lull in publishing - Not much is written or published - Spanish make a start but the last is in 1529 and similar in 1530 but no more after that - Second phase is very quite and the end for Spanish - Northern Europe has a third phase: 3. 1560s-1630s - Renewed interest, but disagreement about details - Demonologies are tied to trials- therefore make 1560s breaking point, not entirely true but it will work – has merit of end point for matching up demonological with trial material in Levack- matches periodization - Bulk of material published! - Reprints: o Nicolas Jacquier, Flagellum haereticorum written 1458/published 1581 published because people think it will tell them something important about witchcraft in their day o Theatrum de Veneficiis 1586 – Theatre of Poisoners – code word for witches –poison- title in Latin but work in German. o Malleus edition of 1588, includes works of  Bernard Basin Art of Magic, 1482  Ulrich Molitor, De lammis 1489  Bartolomeo Spina De strigibus 1523  And five others o Bernard of Como, 1510/1580s De Strigibus- reprinted - New Books: o Martin DelRio, Disquisitionium magicarum Libri Sex, 1599-1600 – 6 books  Martin is a Jesuit, Jesuits displaced Dominicans- because of perceived link between witchcraft as heresy and hideous ideas of protestants – Jesuit writers displacing Dominicans – as chief generator of witchcraft publishing o Lambert Daneau Dialogus de veneficiis 1564- Protestant, gets picked up in England o Joos de Damhouder, Criminal Practice 1554 – lawyers more involved because lay courts involved in trials – plagiarized – how to conduct a witch trial o Jean Bodin Demonomania 1580- French lawyer o Nicolas Remy Demonolotry 1595 o Henri Boguet Discours des Sorciers 1602 o Richard Bernard Guide to Grand-Jury Men 1627- English- directed at juries o Johann Hartlieb Book of All the Forbidden Arts – medical doctors 1456- louder voice about demons and witches from middle of 16 century on o Johan Weyer On the Illusion of Demons – Bodin wrote against him 1563 and On Witches 1582- Weyer sceptical about humans engaging in witchcraft but very credulous about devil o William Drage Daimonolmageia 1665- about demonic possession o John Cotta The Trial of Witch-craft 1616- work of medical doctor, Cotta is conventional about beliefs in witchcraft but encourages people to think twice before crying witch witch, reminds readers there are natural cases and remedies for disease. With Cotta we get into the ideas of the fourth phase, overlaps the third, scepticism and belief openly quarrel 4. 1630s-1680s: scepticism begins to triumph among the educated, to the despair of clergy like the Anglican Joseph Glanvill (Sadducismus Triumphatus 1681) “those who dare not bluntly say there is no God, content themselves (for a fair step and introduction) to deny there are spirits or witches” - Scepticism about details - Drive out belief in witchcraft with educated - To give up witches- athleticism? - Josph Glanvill – becoming sceptical for clergy is something that puts Christian faith at risk Some key figures and their works- geographic range- Spanish fade out quickly, Italians too, one’s profession does not make a difference until fourth phase when more sceptical medical doctor emerge as stereotypes Alphonsus de Spina, Fortalitium Fidei, 1459 - First known to publish on witchcraft, Spanish - “Fortress of Fate” - Printed first time before 1471 - Beautiful rag paper, watermarks from manufacture - Published anonymously, detective work to see who wrote it – was de Spina though - Franciscan Friar – Spanish jew forced to convert to Catholicism – rumour- - Professor of Theology- professor to King of Castile – well connected- not a Dominican – therefore does not put same weight on Aquinas like the other Dominicans had- he prefers to follow St. Augustine- Fortress of Fate describes two worlds the world of God and the city of the Devil: Babylon – describes a Christian fortress being assaulted by the Devil – book 5, describes spiritual armour, blunt about who the enemies are, attackers arthdemons, work catalogues 10 different kinds of demons, the 10 is likely to pray on old woman and make them think they are witches, this 10 demon has an interest in practicing take overs in Dauphine thus responding to early trials- military tract- Christians in heavy armour of faith against enemies - Fortress probably as popular as Malleus – in first phase- counting edition- Fortress covers demons, Muslims on the march… - No one would pick up maleus but unless interested in witchcraft- fortress has more topics - First published work that survives Ulrich Molitor, De Lamiis et Pythonicis Mulieribus, 1489 - Another early work - He is a German, first lawyer - His book was on witches and female fortune tellers- originally in latin then german – like de spina it has references in Malleus – he is a doctor of law – professor of law at university of Constance writes book at request of archduke – published in 1489 written in request to duke- Sigismund where Kramer took out two recent inquisitions - Molitor’s book given to legal counsel Stirsle - Book is dialogue – 3 persons, Moitor talks the most- Sigismund poses questions and Molitor provides responses- Sigismund is doubtful, disturbed about what is going on and does not think a rumour is worth conviction - Sigismund asks about weather magic, impotence, maleficia rather than pact or heresy = interests - Summing up comments – 1489 malleus comes out and Molitor says most of the stuff we read about witchcraft Is describing illusions the devil creates, not realities – all demonic illusions – demonic concubation is not real it is all an illusion according to Molitor- incubus succubus from Aquinas that Kramer and Sprenger followed is not true according to Molitor, true that humans make pacts with devil – anyone who makes a pact should die, woman vulnerable to Satan temptation but his woman are not like the witches of malleus - Molitor believes in witchcraft and believes in punishment but sceptical about malleus stuff, does not refer to book by title, proceeds by saying no no no - A lot of illustrations- Demonic seduction of a human woman – illustration contradicts text- witches flying through air (woodcut) printer put in book to make pretty but images contradict Sylvester Prierias, De Strigimagarum Daemonumque Mirandis 1521 - Sabbats – early informant of Mar
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