HPS211H1 Lecture Notes - Social Skills

History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Course Code
Curtis Forbes

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HPS211 lec1 Jan10th
Thomas Kunn
Wrote the influential book after studying history of science after considering that the way
people record science is wrong. Coined the term paradigm. Stressed that we need to study history and
philosophy of science together.
“what are scientific revolutions and what is its necessity?”
p92. “…revolution is when old paradigm replaced in whole or part.by an incompatible new one”
accumulation of facts. Many saw science as such before Kun, while he thought its
incorrect. Believed it happens only within a paradigm.
A same view about fundamental nature of reality. Some well accepted approach of
ideology. A well-known frame of reference.
Normal Science:
Where accumulation of facts happens. Happens after acceptance of paradigm that
provides a set of tools, and lets us neglect the alternatives.
Something off/wrong given a certain paradigm and establishment.
conversations about the anomalies and presentation of new alternative ideas.
After the crisis occurs, the change in paradigm, creating a new point of view after the
revolution is finished. Shift in fundamental ideas.
Why “revolution”? >> it is a political event e.g. change of government
Why revolution happens:
Analogous in both scientific and political spheres. Happens mostly due to a malfunction
that leads to crisis. While seems normal to someone outside of paradigm, it feels
revolutionary to those inside.
What revolutions change:
Also analogous in both spheres. It is the change of one’s thoughts and tools in order to
understand the anomaly. Change in institutions with periods in between when no one government has
control. Revolution is primarily a social process. Requires a lot of persuasion in order to make others
understand and follow. Incompatible social modes of community life.
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