Motor Learning- October 1 st
- Chapters 1-4 (Readings and Lectures)
- Labs 1 and 2
- All multiple choice
o Calculated multiple choice (calculations) CE, VE, etc.
o Identify missing items in model or figure Newell’s model
o Fill in the blank
All motor classification schemes (Gross-Fine) are continuous (not universal,
objective, arbitrary, or valid)
All motor skills are acquired: FALSE. (reflexes)
Which of the following statistical variables is best associated with Variable Error?
By comparing the CE, AE, and ACE for both aces, what condition is necessary for all
three measures to be the same?
All shots directed in the same positive quadrant or side of the grid.
Absolute error is the closest value to standard deviation.
Considering the performance on each axis, do you think you need to work more on
aiming direction or amplitude? Why?
- Largest VE Error
- Endpoint distribution more difficult to adjust
Identify three (3) practical situations in which you could use these measures to
quantify performance and three (3) situations where such measures are not
- Example: Swimming Difficult to establish desired angle and real error
- Establish discrete moments in trajectory where you want to assess variable
error and constant error.
- Easier for a discrete skill than a continuous skill to calculate
Movement Production and Motor Programs - Most applicable model is Motor Programs.
- Separate motor plans?
- Attempting to throw a ball at 5 m prepare series of muscle contractions.
o Adams (1971) suggested that one must put together a motor plan
o Do you need to store a motor program for every distance that you
o All the motor programs would have to be stored in the hippocampus!
How do we store it all?
- How do we generate new actions?
Schmidt’s Theory (1975)
- Generalized Motor Program (GMP)
o Shared by each class of movement
o Store a single GMP and use for all distance that you can throw, etc.
o Set of parameters specified prior to each trial (ex. Force and Angle)
- Schmidt published a theory (figure)
o Initial conditions + desired outcome will pick up desired GMP
put in right specifications (what angle? What force?) This creates
unique motor program.
o Motor program limbs (giving proprioceptive feedback)
environment (exteroception; do I see the ball going where I want it to
Were the proprioceptive and exteroceptive feedback the same
as the desired outcome?
EXP PFB (proprioceptive feedback) and EXP EFB
FEEDBACK = LEARNING (can use both PFB and EFB)
o Pulling the right GMP for the initial conditions is easy. What is more
difficult is parameterizing the GMP!
Review of Schmidt’s Theory
Initial conditions, desired outcome
Selection of motor schema (GMP)
Execution of motor program
Limbs are moving (produce PFB)
Environment reacts (EFB)
We measure the outcome
(** IT IS NOT ONLY OPEN LOOP. There are some closed-loop processes. BUT, the
theory is not 100% established at this point in re